Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen
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|Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen|
|Part of The Welsh Revolt, 1400–1415|
Memorial to the slain of Mynydd Hyddgen
|Welsh rebel forces||English and Flemish settlers|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
200 killedMore taken prisoner
The Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen was part of the Welsh revolt led by Owain Glyndŵr against English rule that lasted from 1400 to 1415 and the battle occurred in June 1401. Its location was on the western slopes of Pumlumon, near to the present-day Ceredigion/Powys boundary.
The Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen is considered the first victory in the field won by Owain Glyndŵr (1359–c. 1416), leader of the Welsh revolt and it could be said that it set the tone for the spread of the rebellion in its early stages and at a key time if the rebellion was to gather meaningful momentum.
The two armies
The settlers were reinforced by a large force of English soldiers and Flemish mercenaries. This was Owain's early base as his rebellion started and spread. It is estimated that his force at this stage amounted to five hundred men, just a third of the attacking force and some records, such as the 'Annals of Owen Glyn Dwr' written by Gruffydd Hiraethog many years later in 1550 and based on earlier accounts that have not survived, put his force at just 120 men. It is thought that Owain's force would have been made up mostly of archers mounted on hill ponies that would have been well suited for travelling across boggy or mountainous regions.
The English-Flemish army meanwhile would have generally consisted of infantry with some light cavalrymen supporting them. Despite having decent equipment, many of the English-Flemish soldiers were lacking in military experience, and there was a general lack of discipline within their army.
The precise location of the battle is not known, and little is known of the course of the battle itself. Mynydd means "mountain" in Welsh. However, it is known that Glyndŵr's army was able to fight back these attackers (despite being outnumbered and on the low ground), killing 200, chasing the main force away and making prisoners of the rest. It can be assumed that Owain's success lay in the maneuverability of his light troops. The English army (being more heavily laden) would have had more trouble traversing the marshy ground of the valley.