Ben L. Salomon
|Benjamin L. Salomon|
September 1, 1914|
|Died||July 7, 1944
Saipan, South Pacific Mandate
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1940–1944|
|Unit||2nd Battalion, 105th Infantry Regiment
27th Infantry Division
Benjamin Lewis Salomon (September 1, 1914 – July 7, 1944) was a United States Army dentist during World War II, assigned as a front-line surgeon. When the Japanese started overrunning his hospital, he stood a rear-guard action in which he had no hope of personal survival, allowing the safe evacuation of the wounded, killing at least 98 enemy troops before being killed himself during the Battle of Saipan. In 2002, Salomon posthumously received the Medal of Honor. He is one of only three dental officers to have received the medal, the others being Alexander Gordon Lyle and Weedon Osborne.
Salomon was born into a Jewish family in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on September 1, 1914. He was an Eagle Scout, one of nine who were awarded the Medal of Honor. He graduated from Shorewood High School and attended Marquette University, before transferring to the University of Southern California, where he completed his undergraduate degree. He graduated from the USC Dental School in 1937 and began a dental practice.
In 1940, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and began his military service as an infantry private, qualifying expert in rifle and pistol. In 1942, he was notified that he would become an officer in the Army Dental Corps and was commissioned a first lieutenant. In August 14, 1942, the 102nd Infantry Regt. commanding officer declared him the unit's "best all around soldier". In May 1943, he was serving as the regimental dental officer of the 105th Infantry Regiment, 27th Infantry Division. He was promoted to the rank of captain in 1944.
In June 1944, Salomon saw his first combat — going ashore on Saipan with the 105th Infantry. With little dental work to do during active combat, Salomon volunteered to replace the 2nd Battalion's surgeon, who had been wounded. As the 2nd Battalion advanced, casualties were high. On July 7, Salomon's aid station was set up only 50 yards behind the forward foxhole line. Fighting was heavy and a major Japanese assault soon overran the perimeter, then the aid station. Salomon was able to kill the enemy that entered the hospital tent and ordered the wounded to be evacuated, while he stayed to cover their withdrawal.
When an Army team returned to the site days later, Salomon's body was found slumped over a machine gun, with the bodies of 98 enemy troops piled up in front of his position. His body had 76 bullet wounds and many bayonet wounds, up to 24 of which may have been received while he was still alive.
The long road to the Medal of Honor
Capt. Edmund G. Love, the 27th Division historian, was a part of the team that found Salomon's body. At the request of Brig. Gen. Ogden J. Ross, the assistant commander of the 27th Division, Love gathered eyewitness accounts and prepared a recommendation for the Medal of Honor for Salomon.
The recommendation was returned by Maj. Gen. George W. Griner, the commanding general of the 27th Division. Officially, Griner declined to approve the award because Salomon was "in the medical service and wore a Red Cross brassard upon his arm. Under the rules of the Geneva Convention, to which the United States subscribes, no medical officer can bear arms against the enemy." However, the guideline for awarding the Medal of Honor to medical non-combatants states that one may not receive the Medal of Honor for actions in an "offensive". More recent interpretations of the Convention, as well as the US Laws of Land Warfare allow use of personal weapons (i.e., rifles and pistols) in self-defense or in defense of patients and staff, as long as the medical soldier does not wear the Red Cross. Part of the problem in Salomon's citation was that a machine gun is considered a "crew-served", not an individual weapon.
Prior to Salomon, only two Jewish Americans had been awarded Medals of Honor during World War II, and none for Korea, though some (like Salomon) have been decorated years later, including Pfc. Leonard M. Kravitz (uncle and namesake of the pop star Lenny Kravitz) and Corporal Tibor Rubin, who was awarded the Medal of Honor in 2005.
In 1951, Love again resubmitted the recommendation through the Office of the Chief of Military History. The recommendation was returned without action with another pro-forma reason: the time limit for submitting World War II awards had passed. In 1969, another Medal of Honor recommendation was submitted by Lt. Gen. Hal B. Jennings, the Surgeon General of the United States Army. In 1970, Stanley R. Resor, Secretary of the Army, recommended approval and forwarded the recommendation to the Secretary of Defense. The recommendation was returned without action.
In 1998, the recommendation was re-submitted by Dr. Robert West (USC Dental School) through Congressman Brad Sherman. Finally, on May 1, 2002, President George W. Bush presented Salomon's Medal of Honor to Dr. West. Salomon's Medal of Honor is displayed at the USC Dental School. The Army Medical Department, at this point, was supportive.
Medal of Honor citation
CAPTAIN BEN L. SALOMON
UNITED STATES ARMY
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Captain Ben L. Salomon was serving at Saipan, in the Marianas Islands on July 7, 1944, as the Surgeon for the 2nd Battalion, 105th Infantry Regiment, 27th Infantry Division. The Regiment’s 1st and 2d Battalions were attacked by an overwhelming force estimated between 3,000 and 5,000 Japanese soldiers. It was one of the largest attacks attempted in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Although both units fought furiously, the enemy soon penetrated the Battalions’ combined perimeter and inflicted overwhelming casualties. In the first minutes of the attack, approximately 30 wounded soldiers walked, crawled, or were carried into Captain Salomon’s aid station, and the small tent soon filled with wounded men. As the perimeter began to be overrun, it became increasingly difficult for Captain Salomon to work on the wounded. He then saw a Japanese soldier bayoneting one of the wounded soldiers lying near the tent. Firing from a squatting position, Captain Salomon quickly killed the enemy soldier. Then, as he turned his attention back to the wounded, two more Japanese soldiers appeared in the front entrance of the tent. As these enemy soldiers were killed, four more crawled under the tent walls. Rushing them, Captain Salomon kicked the knife out of the hand of one, shot another, and bayoneted a third. Captain Salomon butted the fourth enemy soldier in the stomach and a wounded comrade then shot and killed the enemy soldier. Realizing the gravity of the situation, Captain Salomon ordered the wounded to make their way as best they could back to the regimental aid station, while he attempted to hold off the enemy until they were clear. Captain Salomon then grabbed a rifle from one of the wounded and rushed out of the tent. After four men were killed while manning a machine gun, Captain Salomon took control of it. When his body was later found, 98 dead enemy soldiers were piled in front of his position. Captain Salomon’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
- Medal of Honor
- Purple Heart
- American Defense Service Medal
- American Campaign Medal
- Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with one campaign star
- World War II Victory Medal
- List of Medal of Honor recipients
- List of Jewish Medal of Honor recipients
- List of Medal of Honor recipients for World War II
- "American Dental Association". 68. Journal of the American Dental Association. 1964: 168. ISSN 0002-8177. OCLC 1777821.
During the 100 years that officers have been eligible, two dental officers have been awarded the Medal: Alexander Gordan Lyle and ...
- William T. Bowers. "Ben Salomon". Medal of Honor recipients: United States Army Medical Department. Office of Medical History, Office of the Surgeon General. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
- Biederman, Patricia Ward (May 5, 2012). "A Heroic World War II Dentist Finally Gets His Due". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "News Stories frrom the Archives". homeofheroes.com. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Section 223 "Conditions Not Depriving Medical Units and Establishments of Protection",
- "Tibor Rubin". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- *Congressman Brad Sherman (May 1, 2006). "Sherman Instrumental in Awarding Medal of Honor, President Presents Constituent With Fallen Hero’s Medal". Press Release, Office of Congressman Brad Sherman,. Archived from the original on 2006-07-04. Retrieved 2006-07-26.
- Bush, George W. (May 1, 2002). "Remarks on presenting the congressional Medal of Honor posthumously to Captain Ben L. Salomon and Captain Jon E. Swanson". Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Retrieved 2006-07-26.
- Seymour "Sy" Brody. "Capt. Ben L. Salomon: Jewish Medal of Honor recipient in World War II". Jewish Heroes in America. Archived from the original on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-26.
- "Ben L. Salomon, MOH Recipient". Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved 2011-12-26.
- Collette Knittel (September 2002). "Dentist Hero Finally Awarded Congressional Medal of Honor". Journal of the California Dental Association. Archived from the original on 2010-12-25. Retrieved 2006-07-28.
- "Ben L. Salomon". Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved September 24, 2010.