Bernreuter Personality Inventory

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The Bernreuter Personality Inventory is a personality test developed by Robert G. Bernreuter in 1931 measuring general personality. It is sometimes cited as the first multi-scale personality questionnaire. It consists of 125 yes or no question which yield six scores: neurotic tendency, self-sufficiency, introversion-extraversion, dominance-submission, sociability, and confidence.[1] A 1936 survey of members of the American Psychological Association found that the Bernreuter Personality Inventory was the most well known psychological test.[2]

The inventory became widely used quickly after it was first published, but also attracted many critics who questioned its usefulness and theoretical basis.[3]

The test was sold by the Stanford University Press, priced at $1.75 for 25 administrations.[3]

The test incorporated questions from the Thurstone Personality Schedule and others.

The test was originally developed with four scales (neurotic tendency, self-sufficiency, introversion-extraversion, dominance-submission) chosen with items chosen logically. The other two scales (sociability, and confidence) came from a factor analysis by John C. Flanagan.[4] The "Flanagan keys" eventually were incorporated into the published version of the test.


  1. ^ "Bernreuter Personality Inventory". Oxford Reference.
  2. ^ Pallister, Helen. "American psychologists judge fifty-three vocational tests." Journal of Applied Psychology 20.6 (1936): 761.
  3. ^ a b Super, Donald E. "The Bernreuter Personality Inventory: a review of research." Psychological Bulletin 39.2 (1942): 94.
  4. ^ BANKS, CHARLOTTE, and GERTRUDE KEIR. "A factorial analysis of items in the Bernreuter Personality Inventory." British Journal of Statistical Psychology 5.1 (1952): 19-29.