Bib Doda

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Kapedan
Bib Doda
Pasha
Kapedan bib doda (1820-1868).jpg
Born Bibë Doda
1820
Orosh, Mirdita, Ottoman Empire (present-day Albania)
Died 1868
Resting place Shkodër
Occupation Clan chief
Title Kapedan of the Mirdita
Head of the Gjonmarkaj clan
Predecessor Gjok Doda
Successor Prenk Bib Doda
Parent(s) Gjok Doda

Bib Doda (1820–1868) was the chieftain of the Mirdita Albanian tribe in the Ottoman Sanjak of Scutari. He held the Ottoman rank of kapedan (captain) and the honorific pasha (governor).

Biography[edit]

Family[edit]

Bib Doda belonged[citation needed] to the Gjonmarkaj clan which had led Mirdita for a long period.[clarification needed] He started ruling his clan at a young age,[clarification needed] since his father Gjok Doda got murdered. [1] He got married to a Muslim woman, Hide (daughter of Hasan Ajazi), from Armalle village in the Lurë region.[2] He was the father of Prenk Bib Doda, who would later play an important role in the Albanian politics of the early 20th century.

Agreement with Serbia[edit]

Bib Doda together with influential abbot Gaspër Krasniqi and Mark Prenk Lleshi from Mirdita, as representatives of Mirdita, reached an agreement with Serbian Internal Minister Ilija Garašanin in 1849 regarding cooperation with Serbia and Montenegro against the Ottoman Empire.[3] Garašanin believed that Albania should be established as an independent state.[4] The eventual Albanian state was to encompass territories between rivers Drin (Drim) and Aoös (Vojuša).[5]

Activities against Albanian rebels[edit]

Bib Doda aided the Ottoman raids against the Albanian rebels of Dervish Cara, during the Albanian Revolt of 1843–44 in the sanjaks of Prizren, Scutari and Ohrid. He played a significant role in the expedition, and was decorated and awarded an honorary sabre and pistols.[6] Doda received the title "Pasha" in 1849 and allowed to maintain an army up to 10,000 people.[7]

His name came in the center of attention during the Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1861–62). Northern Albanian Catholic tribes were organized to start an uprising against the Ottomans led by abbot Gaspër Krasniqi, with the support of French emissaries of Napoleon III. Bib Doda who was still getting paid well by the Ottomans was not convinced of the benefits of the uprising and stayed out, thus not staying by his previous agreement with Garašanin.[citation needed] In spring 1862 he even tried to recruit some volunteers to aid the Ottomans. This led to a general mistrust and rage against him. Mirdita rebels raided and burnt his properties in Kallmet. Meanwhile, other rebels cut the roads that connected Shkodra with Prizren. Ottomans intervened and Gaspër Krasniqi was arrested. The Albanian uprising did not happen.

Death[edit]

With the death of Bib Doda in 1868, the Ottomans assigned a kaymakam from his own family, but removed his young son Prenk and exiled him to Turkey. He was buried in Shkodër.

Legacy[edit]

Bib Doda was regarded by the Albanians as a "murderer of his own people", in particular his role in the Uprising of Dervish Cara. There were allegations that the British and Austro-Hungarians were behind all this, interested in having the Ottoman Empire still strong in the Balkans.[8][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The tribes of Albania; History, Society and Culture. Robert Elsie. 2012. p. 225. 
  2. ^ Ramiz Lushaj (2014-05-28), KURORA E DYTË E LURËS (in Albanian), Dielli, Kapedani i shquar i Mirditës, Bibë Dodë Pasha, i krishterë, u martue në Lurë me çikën mulimane, Hiden e Hasan Ajazit nga Arrmalla. 
  3. ^ SANU 1985, p. 127: "...а од 1846 је у вези са мирдитским опатом Гаспаром Красником, захваљујући коме је дошло и до споразума о заједничкој акцији са мирдитским кнезом Боб Додом 1849. године."
  4. ^ Stojančević 1990, p. 242

    Дубље проучавање арбанашких прилика учврстило Гарашанина у мишљењу да је боље створити од Албаније независну државу.

  5. ^ Stojančević 1991, p. 336: "У складу са овом оријентацијом, он је 1866/67. године предложив да Грцима припадне Крит, Епир и Тесалија, а Србији — Босна, Херцеговина и Стара Србија до Дрима и Искра, оставивши, сада, могућност стварања албанске државе између Дрима и Војуше."
  6. ^ Theodor Ippen (1916), Robert Elsie, ed., Nineteenth-Century Albanian History, translated by Robert Elsie, archived from the original on 2013-01-08, In his fight against the rebels, the Kapedan of Mirdita, Bib Doda, fulfilled his obligations to the Sultan by providing a contingent of men who played an important role in putting down the uprising. He was decorated on several occasions by the Serasker and awarded an honorary sabre and pistols. 
  7. ^ Stefanaq Pollo; Kristo Frasheri (1983), Historia e Shqipërisë: Vitet 30 të shek. XIX-1912 (in Albanian), Tirana, Albania: Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Historisë, p. 146, OCLC 255273594, retrieved 2013-12-14 
  8. ^ LËVIZJA KOMBËTARE SHQIPTARE NË VITET 30-70 TË SHEK. XIX (in Albanian)
  9. ^ Aleks Buda (1986), Shkrime historike, 2, Shtëpia Botuese "8 Nëntori", p. 52 

Sources[edit]