Bing's recognition theorem

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In topology, a branch of mathematics, Bing's recognition theorem, named for R. H. Bing, asserts that a necessary and sufficient condition for a 3-manifold M to be homeomorphic to the 3-sphere is that every Jordan curve in M be contained within a topological ball.


  • Bing, R. H. (1958). "Necessary and sufficient condition that the 3-manifold be S3". Annals of Mathematics. 68 (1): 17. doi:10.2307/1970041.