Body percussion may be performed on its own or as an accompaniment to music and/or dance. Examples of countries' folk traditions that incorporate body percussion include Indonesian saman, Ethiopian armpit music, palmas in flamenco, and the hambone from the United States. Body percussion is a subset of "body music".
Body percussion sounds
Percussion instruments produce their sound when a player hits, scrapes, rubs or shakes them to produce vibrations. These techniques can also be applied to the human body. The body also presents several unique possibilities including the use of inhaled or exhaled air and vocal sounds.
Traditionally the four main body percussion sounds (in order from lowest pitch to highest in pitch) are:
- Stomp: Striking left, right, or both feet against the floor or other resonant surface.
- Patsch: Patting either the left, right or both thighs with hands and face
- Clapping hands together
- Snapping fingers
However, there are numerous other possibilities including: hitting the chest, whistling, slapping or flicking the cheeks with an open mouth, clicking with the tongue against the roof of the mouth, grunting, and hitting the buttocks.
Variations of sound are possible through changing the playing technique. For example, clapping the hands in various positions will affect factors such as pitch and resonance.
Body percussion is used extensively in music education, because of its accessibility—the human body is the original musical instrument and the only instrument that every student possesses. Using the body in this manner gives students a direct experience of musical elements, such as beat, rhythm, and metre and helps a student internalise rhythmic skills. Certain approaches to music education, including Orff, Kodály and Bapne make particular use of body percussion.
BAPNE method is not a musical method, but is a method of cognitive stimulation for the development of attention, memory and concentration, which is the body percussion instrument. The activities of this method are articulated in the theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983) in order to engage the lobes of the brain. The purpose is not to learn musical notes, their duration or reading a score, but to stimulate the brain through the benefits of rhythm with neuroscience.
Body percussion may be performed solo or several performers may combine to create a musical ensemble. One of the most accomplished body percussion soloists is Keith Terry. Terry resides in San Francisco, California and in the 1980s he established Cross Pulse, a non-profit organization dedicated to the creation, performance and recording of rhythm-based, intercultural music and dance. Perhaps the most famous body percussion ensemble is the United Kingdom percussion group Stomp. Stomp perform in a musical genre known as trash percussion, which involves the use of non-traditional instruments combined with body percussion. In Brazil, the most well-known body percussion group is Barbatuques.
- Terry, Keith. "Body Music". World Arts West. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
- Percussive Notes -1984 Volume 23 - Page 50 "Body music was probably the first music - before people began slapping rocks and hollowing logs for drums, they were probably stomping, clapping and grunting to express their musical ideas. There are many body musics still thriving today: in the United States hambone was popular at the turn of the century and is still in practice; some South Pacific island people create music by clapping and slapping the chest and thighs; in Morocco there is a version that involves beating the chest... These are only a few examples of a varied and vital body music scene...."
- Locklear, Scott (May 2006). "Body Percussion" (PDF). Drum!: 69–72. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
- Dietrich Woehrlin. "Rhythmic & Body Percussion". Book/CD, Coda Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3940161-17-8
- Martin J. Junker. "Six Bagatells for Body Percussion Solo". Dinklage 2000 (Gretel-Verlag, Germany) 
- Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier, "Science & art of body percussion: a review". Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 8(2). June 2013. ISSN 1988-5202
- Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier. “Percusión corporal en diferentes culturas”. (Body percussion in different cultures) Música y Educación: Revista trimestral de pedagogía musical. Año XXI, 4 – Núm. 76 - Diciembre 2008. Madrid, Spain, pp. 46 – 97. ISSN 0214-4786. 
- Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier. Body music! Body percussion! Didáctica de la percusión corporal“. Música y educación: Revista trimestral de pedagogía musical, Año nº 19, Nº 68, 2006, Madrid, Spain, pp. 49–88. ISSN 0214-4786. 
- Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier. "Bodymusic-Bodypercussion. Ritmos de rock, funky, reage y samba con percusión corporal y su aplicación didáctica". Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia. Instituto Superior de Formación y Recursos en Red para el profesorado. Madrid, Spain, pp. 121 – 138. ISBN 978-84-369-4571-3.
- Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier. "Percusión Corporal e Inteligencias múltiples". (Body percussion and Multiple Intelligences) VII Jornades de Música. Universidad de Barcelona. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament d'Educació, 2008. Barcelona, Spain, pp. 21 – 38. ISBN 978-84-96907-04-1.
- Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier. “Bodymusic – Bodypercussion. Propuestas didácticas sobre psicomotricidad rítmica”. Música y Educación: Revista trimestral de pedagogía musical. Año XVII, 4 – Núm. 60 - Diciembre 2004. Madrid, Spain. ISSN 0214-4786. 
- Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier. „Propuestas didácticas en base a los sistemas Bodypercussion y TA KE TI NA“. Música y Educación: Revista trimestral de pedagogía musical. Año XIV, 3 – Núm. 47 – Octubre 2001. Madrid, Spain, pp. 37 – 50. ISSN 0214-4786.