People who speak or sing outside their normal vocal range can develop BBS; symptoms are chiefly an unnaturally deep or rough voice, or dysphonia, and vocal fatigue. The people most commonly afflicted are those who speak in a low-pitched voice, particularly if they have poor breath and vocal control. The syndrome can affect both men and women.
In 1988 an article was published, describing a discrete type of vocal dysfunction which results in men sounding like actor Humphrey Bogart and women sounding like actress Lauren Bacall; coincidentally, Bogart and Bacall were married to each other and made several films together. BBS is now the medical term for an ongoing hoarseness that often afflicts actors, singers or TV/radio voice workers who routinely speak in a very low pitch.
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- Brill, Marlene Targ (2014). Speech and Language Challenges: The Ultimate Teen Guide. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 64. ISBN 9780810887923.
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- Koufman, James A.; Blalock, P. David (May 1988). "Vocal fatigue and dysphonia in the professional voice user: Bogart-bacall syndrome". The Laryngoscope. 98 (5): 493–498. doi:10.1288/00005537-198805000-00003.
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