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Bolel is a style of Ethiopian music that evolved out of the Azmari musical tradition in Addis Ababa and elements of modern urban culture. The word bolel is a corrupted form of the word meaning dust, in reference to the bad roads of the rural countryside.


  • Falceto, Francis. "Land of Wax and Gold". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp 480-487. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0