Bonded amalgam

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Bonded amalgam is used in dentistry. Dental amalgam does not by itself bond to tooth structure. This was recognized as a shortcoming by early practitioners such as Baldwin.[1] He recommended that the prepared cavity be coated with zinc phosphate cement just prior to filling with amalgam, in order to improve the seal and retention. The practice did not become universally accepted and eventually fell into disuse. Until the 1980s, most amalgam restorations placed worldwide were done without adhesives, although in the 1970s a polycarboxylate-based adhesive liner was formulated specifically for this purpose [2] In the mid-1980s the first reports of the use of resins to bond amalgam to etched tooth structure, much like is done for composite resins, appeared in the literature.[3][4][5][6][7] Since then, a number of papers have been published on laboratory as well as clinical studies of the technique.

There is no current scientific evidence to justify the extra cost and effort associated with the use of adhesively bonded amalgam restorations in comparison with nonbonded amalgam restorations. In view of the lack of evidence on the additional benefit of adhesively bonding amalgam compared with nonbonded amalgam, it is important that clinicians are mindful of the additional costs that may be incurred [8]


  1. ^ Baldwin H. Cement and amalgam fillings. Br J Dent Sci 1897; vol. XL (no. 699): 193-234
  2. ^ Zardiackas L D, Stoner G E, Smith F K. Dental amalgam stabilization by selective interfacial amalgamation. Biota Med Dev Art Org 1976; 4: 193-203
  3. ^ Varga J, Matsumura H, Masuhara E. Bonding of amalgam filling to tooth cavity with adhesive resin. Dent Mater J 1986; 5: 158-164
  4. ^ Shimizu A, Ui T, Kawakami M. Bond strength between amalgam and tooth hard tissues with application of fluoride, glass ionomer cement and adhesive resin cement in various combinations. Dent Mater J 1986; 5: 225-232
  5. ^ Shimizu A, Ui T, Kawakami M. Microleakage of amalgam restorations with adhesive resin cement lining, glass ionomer cement base and fluoride treatment. Dent Mater J 1987; 6:64-69
  6. ^ Shimizu A, Ui T, Kawakami M, Tsuchitani Y. Adhesive amalgam restoration with resin cement lining: Basic technique and three clinical cases. Jpn J Conserv Dent 1987; 30: 68-75
  7. ^ Staninec M, Holt M. Bonding of amalgam to tooth structure: Tensile adhesion and microleakage tests. J Prosthet Dent 1988; 59: 397-402
  8. ^ Murad M. No available evidence to assess the effectiveness of bonded amalgams. Evid Based Dent. 2009;10(4):106. doi: 10.1038/sj.ebd.6400682.