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In theoretical condensed matter physics, Bosonization is a mathematical procedure by which a system of interacting fermions in (1+1) dimensions can be transformed to a system of massless, non-interacting bosons.[1] The method of bosonization was conceived independently by particle physicists Sidney Coleman and Stanley Mandelstam; and condensed matter physicists Daniel Mattis and Alan Luther in 1975.[1]

The basic physical idea behind bosonization is that particle-hole excitations are bosonic in character. However, it was shown by Tomonaga in 1950 that this principle is only valid in one-dimensional systems.[2] Bosonization is an effective field theory that focuses on low-energy excitations.[3] This is done for Luttinger liquid theory.

Two complex fermions \psi,\bar\psi are written as functions of a boson \phi

\bar\psi_-\psi_+ = :\exp(i\phi):,\qquad \bar\psi_-\psi_+ = :\exp(-i\phi):[4]

while the inverse map is given by


All equations are normal-ordered. The changed statistics arises from anomalous dimensions of the fields.

See Also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Gogolin, Alexander O. (2004). Bosonization and Strongly Correlated Systems. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-61719-7. 
  2. ^ Sénéchal, David (1999). "An Introduction to Bosonization". Theoretical Methods for Strongly Correlated Electrons. CRM Series in Mathematical Physics. doi:10.1007/0-387-21717-7_4. 
  3. ^ Sohn, Lydia (ed.) (1997). Mesoscopic electron transport. Springer. arXiv:cond-mat/9610037. ISBN 0-7923-4737-4. 
  4. ^ In actuality, there is a cocycle prefactor to give correct (anti-)commutation relations with other fields under consideration.