Boyer's model of scholarship

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Boyer's model of scholarship is an academic model advocating expansion of the traditional definition of scholarship and research into four types of scholarship.[1][2] It was introduced in 1990 by Ernest Boyer.[3] According to Boyer, traditional research, or the scholarship of discovery, had been the center of academic life and crucial to an institution's advancement but it needed to be broadened and made more flexible to include not only the new social and environmental challenges beyond the campus but also the reality of contemporary life. His vision was to change the research mission of universities by introducing the idea that scholarship needed to be redefined.

He proposed that scholarship include these four different categories:

Boyer's model has been embraced across academia[citation needed] with occasional refinement, such as specific applications for different disciplines.


  1. ^ Stewart, Trae; Nicole Webster (2010). Problematizing Service-Learning: Critical Reflections for Development and Action. Information Age Publishing. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-61735-210-2.
  2. ^ Klecka, Cari L. (2009). Visions for teacher educators: perspectives on the Association of Teacher Educators' standards. Rowman & Littlefield Education. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-60709-128-8.
  3. ^ Boyer, E. L. (1990), Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. (PDF), Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

Further reading[edit]