||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (March 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The modern Britannia Bridge.
|Carries||From 1850: North Wales Coast Line
From 1980: A55 road
|Locale||Anglesey, North Wales|
|Design||1850: Tubular bridge
1972: Two-tier truss arch bridge
|Material||1850: Wrought Iron, Stone
1972: Steel, Concrete
|Total length||461 m (1,512 ft)|
|Width||16 m (52 ft)|
|Height||40 m (130 ft)|
|Longest span||140 metres (460 ft)|
|Number of spans||Four|
|Piers in water||One|
|Design life||Railway closed between: 23 May 1970 – 30 January 1972
Upper road deck opened: 1980
|Opened||5 March 1850|
Britannia Bridge (Welsh: Pont Britannia) is a bridge across the Menai Strait between the island of Anglesey and the mainland of Wales. It was originally designed and built by Robert Stephenson as a tubular bridge of wrought iron rectangular box-section spans for carrying rail traffic. Following a fire in 1970 it was rebuilt as a two-tier steel truss arch bridge, carrying both road and rail traffic.
The bridge design
The opening of the Menai Bridge in 1826, one mile (1.6 km) to the east of where Britannia Bridge was later built, provided the first fixed road link between Anglesey and the mainland. The increasing popularity of rail travel necessitated a second bridge to provide a direct rail link between London and the port of Holyhead, the Chester and Holyhead Railway.
Other railway schemes were proposed, including one in 1838 to cross Thomas Telford's existing Menai Bridge. Railway pioneer George Stephenson was invited to comment on this proposal but stated his concern about re-using a single carriageway of the suspension bridge, as bridges of this type were unsuited to locomotive use. By 1840, a Treasury committee decided broadly in favour of Stephenson's proposals, with final consent to the route including Britannia Bridge given in 1845. Stephenson's son Robert was appointed as chief engineer.
The design required the strait to remain accessible to shipping - on the Navy's insistence - and for the bridge to be sufficiently stiff to support the heavy loading associated with trains, so Stephenson constructed a bridge with two main spans of 460-foot-long (140 m), rectangular iron tubes, each weighing 1,500 long tons (1,500 tonnes; 1,700 short tons), supported by masonry piers, the centre one of which was built on the Britannia Rock. Two additional spans of 230 ft (70 m) length completed the bridge, making a 1,511-foot-long (461 m) continuous girder. The trains were to run inside the tubes (inside the box girders). Up until then, the longest wrought iron span had been 31 feet 6 inches (9.60 m), barely one fifteenth of the bridge's spans of 460 ft (140 m).
Stephenson retained the services of two distinguished engineers as consultants: William Fairbairn was an old friend of his father; Eaton Hodgkinson was a leading theorist on strength of materials. Hodgkinson believed that it would be impractical to make the tubes stiff enough, and advised auxiliary suspension from link chains. However, Fairbairn believed chains were unnecessary, declaring:
Provided that the parts are well-proportioned and the plates properly riveted, you may strip off the chains and have it as a useful Monument of the enterprise and energy of the age in which it was constructed.
The consensus of received engineering opinion was with Hodgkinson, but Stephenson, rather nervously, backed Fairbairn's analysis. A 75-foot (23 m) span model was constructed and tested at Fairbairn's Millwall shipyard, and used as a basis for the final design. Although Stephenson had pressed for the tubes to be elliptical in section, Fairbairn's preferred rectangular section was adopted. Fairbairn was responsible both for the cellular construction of the top part of the tubes, and for developing the stiffening of the side panels.
The bridge was decorated by four large lions sculpted in limestone by John Thomas, two at either end. These were immortalised in the following Welsh rhyme by the bard John Evans (1826–1888), who was born in nearby Porthaethwy:
Pedwar llew tew
Heb ddim blew
Dau 'ochr yma
A dau 'ochr drew
Four fat lions
Without any hair
Two on this side
And two over there
The lions cannot be seen from the A55, which crosses the modern bridge on the same site, although they can be seen from trains on the North Wales Coast Line below. The idea of raising them to road level has been suggested[by whom?] from time to time[when?][clarification needed].
Construction and use
Begun in 1846, the bridge was opened on 5 March 1850. For its time, it was a bridge of "magnitude and singular novelty", far surpassing in length contemporary cast beam or plate girder iron bridges. One aspect of its method of construction was also novel: The box sections were assembled on-shore, then floated out into position before being gradually lifted into place using powerful jacks.
There was originally a railway station on the east side of the bridge at the entrance to the tunnel, run by the Chester and Holyhead Railway company, which served local rail traffic in both directions. This station closed after 8½ years in operation owing to low passenger volumes. Nothing now remains of the station other than the remnants of the lower-level station building. A new station named Menai Bridge was opened shortly afterwards.
Fire and reconstruction
During the evening of 23 May 1970 the bridge was greatly damaged when boys playing inside the bridge dropped a burning torch, setting alight the tar-coated wooden roof of the tubes. Despite the best efforts of the Caernarfonshire and Anglesey fire brigades, the bridge's height, construction, and the lack of an adequate water supply meant they were unable to control the fire, which spread all the way across from the mainland to the Anglesey side. After the fire had burned itself out the bridge was still standing, but the structural integrity of the iron tubes had been critically compromised by the intense heat. As a consequence the bridge was completely rebuilt by Husband & Co.
The new design was for an arched bridge. Concrete supports were built under the approach spans and steel archways constructed under the long spans on either side of the central Britannia Tower. The bridge reopened to rail traffic (albeit with only a single line of rails and with reduced speed) on 30 January 1972. Over subsequent months the original box tubes were removed and the stonework of the towers was restored. The original deck below the rail lines was cosmetically restored.
Proposed bridge improvement
In November 2007, a public consultation exercise into the ‘A55 Britannia Bridge Improvement’ commenced. The perceived problems stated include:
- It is the only non-dual-carriageway section along the A55
- Congestion during morning and afternoon peak periods
- Congestion from seasonal and ferry traffic from Holyhead
- Queuing at the junctions at either end
- Traffic is expected to significantly increase over the next ten years or so
In the document, four options are presented, each with their own pros and cons:
- Do nothing. Congestion will increase as traffic levels increase.
- Widen existing bridge. To do this, the towers would have to be removed to make room for the extra lanes. This is an issue as the bridge is a Grade 2 listed structure and also as the bridge is owned by Network Rail. The extra lanes would have to be of reduced width as the existing structure is not capable of supporting four full-width lanes.
- New multi-span concrete box bridge alongside. Building a separate bridge would allow the existing bridge to be used as normal during construction. The bridge would require support pillar(s) in the Menai Strait, which is an environmental issue as the strait is a Special Area of Conservation. Visual impact would be low as the pillars and road surface would be aligned with the current bridge.
- New single span cable-stayed bridge. This would eliminate the need for pillars in the Strait, but the bridge would have a large impact on the landscape due to the height of the cable support pillars. This is also the most costly option.
Respondents were overwhelmingly in favour of seeing some improvements, with 70% favouring the solution of building a second bridge.
Very few other tubular iron bridges were ever built since more economical bridge designs were soon developed. The most notable of the other tubular bridges were Stephenson's Conwy railway bridge between Llandudno Junction and Conwy, the first Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue (Québec) Grand Trunk Railway bridge, which was the prototype of the Victoria Bridge across the Saint Lawrence River at Montreal.
The Conwy railway bridge remains in use, and is the only remaining tubular bridge; however, intermediate piers have been added to strengthen it. The bridge can be seen at close quarters from Thomas Telford's adjacent 1826 Conwy Suspension Bridge.
The Victoria Bridge was the first bridge to cross the St. Lawrence River, and was the longest bridge in the world when it was completed in 1859. It was rebuilt as a truss bridge in 1898.
- Special.st-andrews.ac.uk Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Menai Strait Bridges". Anglesey History. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Baughan, P.E., 'Chester and Holyhead Railway: vol. 1' (1972), pub. David & Charles plc
- 'Disused Stations' website. Details of Britannia Bridge railway station (with pictures)
- "Britannia Bridge Official Fire Report". 2d53.co.uk. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- "Britannia Bridge". engineering-timelines.com. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Welsh Assembly Government (2008-08-12). "A55 Britannia Bridge – Release of the Results of the recent Public Consultation Exercise.". Retrieved 2008-08-14.
- Jones, Reg Chambers (2011). Crossing the Menai: an illustrated history of the ferries and bridges of the Menai Strait. Wrexham: Bridge Books. ISBN 9781844940745.
- Norrie, Charles Matthew (1956) Bridging the Years – a short history of British Civil Engineering, Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd
- Rapley, John (2003). The Britannia and other Tubular Bridges, Tempus, ISBN 0-7524-2753-9
- Richards, Robin (2004). Two Bridges over Menai (new revised ed.). Llanrwst: Gwasg Carreg Gwalch. ISBN 1845241304.
- Rolt, L. T. C. (1960). George and Robert Stephenson: The Railway Revolution, Penguin, Ch. 15, ISBN 0-14-007646-8
- Rosenberg, Nathan; Vincenti, Walter G. (1978). The Britannia Bridge: the generation and diffusion of technical knowledge. Monograph series / Society for the History of Technology, no. 10. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0262180871.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Britannia Bridge.|
- Britannia Bridge (1850) at Structurae
- Britannia Bridge (1905) at Grandad's Photograph Album
- Britannia Bridge, Bangor entrance showing lion (1905) at Grandad's Photograph Album
- Britannia Bridge (1971) at Structurae
- General description of the Britannia and Conway tubular bridges on the Chester and Holyhead Railway, 1849, from Google Book Search
- In 1969 the BBC show Bird's Eye View captured an aerial view of a train crossing the bridge in the episode Man on the Move. Available in the online BBC Archives, the Britannia Bridge segment appears at the 25:47 mark.
- The Night the Bridge Caught Fire BBC programme page
- Menai Heritage A community project and museum celebrating the two bridges over the Menai Strait and the town of Menai Bridge