Brotula

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Brotulas
Hephthocara simum.jpg
Hephthocara simum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Ophidiiformes
Family: Bythitidae
T. N. Gill, 1861
subfamilies & genera

The brotulas form a family, the Bythitidae, of ophidiiform fishes. They are also known as viviparous brotulas as they generally bear live young,[2] although there are indications that some species (at least Didymothallus criniceps) do not.[3] They are generally infrequently seen, somewhat tadpole-like in overall shape and mostly about 5–10 cm (2–4 in) in length,[2] but some species grow far larger and may surpass 60 cm (2 ft).[4][5]

Although many live near the coast in tropical or subtropical oceans,[2] there are also species in deep water and cold oceans, for example Bythites.[6] Thermichthys hollisi, which lives at depths of around 2,500 m (8,200 ft), is associated with thermal vents.[7] A few are fresh or brackish water cavefish: the Mexican blind brotula (Typhliasina pearsei), Galapagos cuskeel (Ogilbia galapagosensis), Diancistrus typhlops and some Lucifuga species.[3][8]

Since 2002, more than 110 new species have been added to this family.[9] In 2005, 26 new species were described in a single paper by Danish and German scientists[10] and in 2007, an additional eight new genera with 20 new species were described in another paper by the same scientists.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nielsen, J.G., Schwarzhans, W. & Cohen, D.M. (2012): Revision of Hastatobythites and Saccogaster (Teleostei, Bythitidae) with three new species and a new genus. Zootaxa, 3579: 1–36.
  2. ^ a b c Nielsen, Jørgen G. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 134. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
  3. ^ a b Nielsen; Schwarzhans; and Hadiaty (2009). A blind, new species of Diancistrus (Teleostei, Bythitidae) from three caves on Muna Island, southeast of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Cybium 33(3): 241-245.
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2017). Species of Cataetyx in FishBase. April 2017 version.
  5. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2017). Species of Grammonus in FishBase. April 2017 version.
  6. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2017). Species of Bythites in FishBase. April 2017 version.
  7. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2017). Thermichthys hollisi in FishBase. April 2017 version.
  8. ^ Romero, A., editor (2001). The Biology of Hypogean Fishes. Developments in Environmental Biology of Fishes. ISBN 978-1402000768
  9. ^ http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.asp
  10. ^ Schwarzhans, Werner; Møller, Peter Rask; Nielsen, Jørgen G. (2005). "Review of the Dinematichthyini (Teleostei: Bythitidae) of the Indo-West Pacific. Part I. Diancistrus and Two New Genera with 26 New Species". The Beagle, Records of the Museum and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory. 21: 73–163. 
  11. ^ Schwarzhans & Møller (2007). "Review of the Dinematichthyini (Teleostei, Bythitidae) of the Indo-West pacific. Part III. Beaglichthys, Brosmolus, Monothrix and 8 new genera with description of 20 new species.". The Beagle, Records of the Museum and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory. 23: 29–110.