South American common toad

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South American common toad
Bufo margaritifer02.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Rhinella
Species: R. margaritifera
Binomial name
Rhinella margaritifera
(Laurenti, 1768)

Bufo margaritifer (Laurenti, 1768)

The South American common toad (Rhinella margaritifera; also mitred toad, in Spanish sapo crestado) is a species complex of toads in the family Bufonidae. They are found throughout the Amazonian South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela) and eastern Panama.[2] It was originally believed to be a single species, but is now known to represent a complex of more than one.[1][2]

Its natural habitats are primary and secondary lowland, premontane and montane tropical moist forests (including terra firme and seasonally flooded forests). It is a generalist species that can also be found in disturbed areas.[1]

Member species[edit]

As of 2013, there were 16 formally described species within this complex, as well as an unknown number that are yet to be recognized.[3]


  1. ^ a b c Solís, F.; Ibáñez, R.; Jaramillo, C.; Fuenmayor, Q.; Silvano, D.; Coloma, L.A.; La Marca, E.; Ron, S. & Hoogmoed, M. (2010). "Rhinella margaritifera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Rhinella margaritifera (Laurenti, 1768)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  3. ^ Lavilla, E. O.; Caramaschi, U.; Langone, J. A.; Pombal Jr., J. P.. & de Sá, R. O. (2013). "The identity of Rana margaritifera Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Bufonidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3646: 251–264.