Buganda Agreement (1900)

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The Buganda Agreement (alternatively the Uganda Agreement) of March 1900 formalised the relationship between the Kingdom of Buganda and the British Uganda Protectorate.[1] Buganda would henceforth be a province of the Protectorate, and would be transformed into a constitutional monarchy with the power of the Lukiko (advisory council) greatly enhanced and the role of the Kabaka (king) reduced.[1] The British also gained the right to veto future choices of Kabaka, and control of numerous other appointments.[2]

The agreement was signed by Buganda's Katikiro Sir Apolo Kagwa, on the behalf of the Kabaka (Daudi Chwa) who was at that time an an infant, and Sir Harry Johnston on the behalf of the British colonial government. The agreement solidified the power of the largely Protestant 'Bakungu' client-chiefs, led by Kagwa. London sent only a few officials to administer the country, relying primarily on the Bakungu chiefs. For decades they were preferred because of their political skills, their Christianity, their friendly relations with the British, There are their ability to collect taxes, and the proximity of Entebbe (the Uganda capital) was close to the Buganda capital. By the 1920s the British administrators were more confident, and have less need for military or administrative support.[3]

By fixing the northern boundary of Buganda as the River Kafu, the agreement formalised Henry Colvile's 1894 promise that Buganda would receive the territories in exchange for their support against the Bunyoro.[citation needed] Two of the 'lost counties' (Buyaga and Bugangaizi) were returned to the Bunyoro following the Ugandan lost counties referendum of 1964.[4]

The provisions concerning the roles of the Kabaka and Lukiiko were largely reversed by the Buganda Agreement of 1961.[2]


  1. ^ a b Reid, Richard J. (2 March 2017). A History of Modern Uganda. Cambridge University Press. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-1-107-06720-2. 
  2. ^ a b Onek C. Adyanga (25 May 2011). Modes of British Imperial Control of Africa: A Case Study of Uganda, c.1890-1990. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 58–59, 138. ISBN 978-1-4438-3035-5. 
  3. ^ Twaddle, Michael (1969). "The Bakungu chiefs of Buganda under British colonial rule, 1900–1930.". Journal of African History 10#2. 
  4. ^ Jørgensen, Jan Jelmert (1981). Uganda: a modern history. Taylor & Francis. pp. 200, 219–221. ISBN 978-0-85664-643-0. 

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