Bugei jūhappan

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The Bugei Juhappan (武芸十八般 "Eighteen kinds of martial arts") were a selection of combat techniques and corollary arts used by the samurai of Tokugawa-era Japan.[1] The concept was established by Hirayama Gyozo, based on earlier Chinese traditions such as Eighteen Arms of Wushu.[2][3]

The eighteen arts consisted of a mixture of native Japanese and imported Chinese martial techniques and tactics. Within each art, various ryū developed, with different methods of performing that particular art.[4] Certain ryū in turn influenced the martial art that were included in the list, most notably Asayama Ichiden-ryū, Kukishin-ryū, Shinden-Fudo-ryū and Tagaki Yoshin-ryū.[5] The exact list varies, but is commonly held to include:

Other arts which were often included in the list of eighteen were:

  • Chikujojutsu, fortifying a castle against siege
  • Yawara, wrestling
  • Fukumibarijutsu, needle-spitting
  • Yabusame, mounted archery
  • Mojirijutsu, fighting with a barbed staff[6][page needed]
  • Yadomejutsu, deflecting flying arrows
  • Saiminjutsu, hypnotism[7]
  • Jujutsu, grappling and fighting unarmed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jesse C.Newman (9 December 2015). History of Kyudo and Iaido In Early Japan. AuthorHouse. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-5049-6359-6. 
  2. ^ Friday, Karl F.; Seki, Humitake (1997). Legacies of the Sword: The Kashima-Shinryū and Samurai Martial Culture ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. p. 199. ISBN 0824818792. 
  3. ^ Chozanshi, Issai; Wilson, William Scott (2006). The Demon's Sermon on the Martial Arts and Other Tales (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International. p. 9. ISBN 4770030185. 
  4. ^ Fumon Tanaka (2003). Samurai Fighting Arts: The Spirit and the Practice. Kodansha International. p. 22. ISBN 978-4-7700-2898-3. 
  5. ^ Thomas A. Green; Joseph R. Svinth (11 June 2010). Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation. ABC-CLIO. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-1-59884-244-9. 
  6. ^ Deal, William E. (2007). Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195331265. 
  7. ^ Lowry, Dave; Furuya, Daniel (1985). Autumn Lightning: The Education of an American Samurai. Boston: Shambala. p. 9. ISBN 0394730275.