The Bugei Juhappan (武芸十八般 "Eighteen kinds of martial arts") were a selection of combat techniques and corollary arts used by the samurai of Tokugawa-era Japan. The concept was established by Hirayama Gyozo, based on earlier Chinese traditions such as Eighteen Arms of Wushu.
The eighteen arts consisted of a mixture of native Japanese and imported Chinese martial techniques and tactics. Within each art, various ryū developed, with different methods of performing that particular art. Certain ryū in turn influenced the martial art that were included in the list, most notably Asayama Ichiden-ryū, Kukishin-ryū, Shinden-Fudo-ryū and Tagaki Yoshin-ryū. The exact list varies, but is commonly held to include:
- Kyujutsu, archery
- Sojutsu, spear-fighting
- Kenjutsu, fencing
- Iaijutsu, sword-drawing
- Tantojutsu, knife-fighting
- Juttejutsu, fighting with a truncheon
- Shurikenjutsu, throwing weapons
- Naginatajutsu, fighting with a polearm
- Hojutsu, shooting (with firearms)
- Bojutsu, stick-fighting
- Kusarigamajutsu, fighting with a chain-and-sickle
- Hojojutsu, tying up an opponent
- Bajutsu, horseriding
- Suieijutsu, swimming in armour
- Ninjutsu, espionage
Other arts which were often included in the list of eighteen were:
- Chikujojutsu, fortifying a castle against siege
- Yawara, wrestling
- Fukumibarijutsu, needle-spitting
- Yabusame, mounted archery
- Mojirijutsu, fighting with a barbed staff[page needed]
- Yadomejutsu, deflecting flying arrows
- Saiminjutsu, hypnotism
- Jujutsu, grappling and fighting unarmed.
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