Bule (pronounced [ˈbule]) is an Indonesian word for foreigners and/or non-Indonesian national, especially people of European descent ('whites', 'Caucasians'). Though bule originally meant 'white', it is sometimes use for other races including Arabs, black Africans, Japanese, and other foreign races.
The word was in use in the 19th century and probably earlier, meaning 'white', when referring to buffalo. An 1840 book noted that people preferred 'bulei' (white) buffalo to 'hitam' (which is the current Indonesian word for black).
An 1869 Malay-Dutch dictionary notes the words 'balar', 'sabun' and 'andan' as referring to 'white people' (wit mensch) and 'albinos'. An 1894 Malay-English dictionary noted the words 'andan' and 'bulei' as referring to albinos, and 'sabun' (a word in current usage as soap) as an adjective for all-white dogs, and for albinos. The word 'balar' is given as an adjective meaning white in the context of buffalos, and also albinos.
A 1948 Javanese Indonesian dictionary notes boelé, balar and boelai as a suffix to the Javanese 'wong' or 'person', in Indonesian 'orang balar' or 'orang saboen'.
Subsequent dictionaries may define 'bule' simply as albino. However, in current usage the English loanword, albino is more commonly used.
In spoken form, the word may be used by street vendors to attract tourists or foreigners' attention. Because some westerners find the word insulting, more cautious street vendors use the term Mister, which foreigners find more polite. As an alternative to 'bule', the adjective 'barat' (literally means west, as in Western) may be an alternative. Compare with güero.
- Laowai, in China
- Gaijin, in Japan
- Pendatang, in Malaysia
- Ang mo, in Singapore and Taiwan
- Gweilo, in Southern China, Hong Kong and Macau
- Farang, in Thailand
- Pembatjaan jang gampang: goena anak-anak midras. 1840. p. 18.
- Supplement op het maleisch-nederduitsch woordenboek. Endschedé en Zonen. 1869. p. 125.
- Sir Hugh Charles Clifford; Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham (1894). A Dictionary of the Malay Language. authors at the Government's printing Office.
- W. J. S. Poerwadarminta (1948). Baoesastra Djawi-Indonesia. Balé Poestaka.
- "Don't Call Me Bule!: How expatriates experience a word - Living in Indonesia, A Site for Expatriates". www.expat.or.id. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
- Fechter, Anne-Meike (2005). "The 'Other' Stares Back: Experiencing Whiteness in Jakarta". Ethnography. 6 (1): 87–103. JSTOR 24048861.