Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor

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The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, also known as a Pindborg tumor or CEOT, is an odontogenic tumor first recognized by the Danish pathologist Jens Jørgen Pindborg in 1955.[1] It was previously described as an adenoid adamantoblastoma, unusual ameloblastoma and a cystic odontoma.[1] Like other odontogenic neoplasms, it is thought to arise from the epithelial element of the enamel origin.[1]

It is a typically benign and slow growing, but invasive neoplasm.[1][2]

Types[edit]

Intraosseous tumors (tumors within the bone) are more likely (94%) versus extraosseus tumors (6%).[2] It is more common in the posterior mandible of adults,[2] typically in the 4th to 5th decades. There may be a painless swelling, and it is often concurrent with an impacted tooth. On radiographs, it appears as a radiolucency (dark area) and is known for sometimes having small radiopacities (white areas) within it. In those instances, it is described as having a "driven-snow" appearance. Microscopically, there are deposits of amyloid-like material. The underlying nature of the amyloid-material is still unresolved.[2]

Clinical features[edit]

Clinically it has two types, the central and the peripheral. The central type of the CEOT occurs in individuals ranging in age from 20–60 years. Two-thirds of the lesions are in jaws, more commonly in the molar area with a tendency to occur in the pre-molar areas.[2] It appears clinically to be a slowly enlarging painless mass. In the maxilla it can cause proptosis, epistaxis and nasal air way obstruction. The peripheral type is commonly found in the anterior region of the maxilla and occurs as a soft tissue swelling.

Histology[edit]

Histopathology will reveal prominent intercellular bridges and nuclear changes such as pleomorphism, hyperchromatism and prominent nucleoli. The mitotic figures are rare. Spread throughout the epithelium and connective tissue are spherical amorhpous calcifications.

Recurrence[edit]

The recurrence rate is 10-15%.[3] Franklin and Pindborg reported a recurrence rate of 14%.[4] It is considered to have a recurrence rate much lower than the recurrence rate for ameloblastoma.[1]

Clear Cell Variant[edit]

When clear cells are present with clear cytoplasms, then this variant is referred to as "Clear Cell Variant" or CCEOT. The incidence of the clear cell variant is rare: according to this paper[5] written in 1994, there were only 9 known cases reported in the literature. However, this[6] indicates that approximately 8% of CEOTs contain clear cells. And Philipsen et al.[2] indicate that 15 cases of CCEOT have been reported so far (circa 2000).

Cystic Variant[edit]

There is one case reported in the literature of a 15-year-old white male with a true cystic variant of CEOT.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Ida Marie Tabangay-Lim; Raymund Noel C. Mallari; Noelito M. Lacsamana; Dexter Domingo Z. Paz; Arthur Rico R. Villafuerte & Peter Raymund M. Quilendrino (Nov 2005). "Recurrent calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor): A case study". Oral Oncology Extra. 41 (10): 259–266. doi:10.1016/j.ooe.2005.04.006. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Philipsen HP, Reichart PA (Jan 2000). "Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour: biological profile based on 181 cases from the literature.". Oral Oncol. 36 (1): 17–26. PMID 10889914. doi:10.1016/S1368-8375(99)00061-5. 
  3. ^ Anderson's pathology (10th ed.). Mosby. 1996. pp. 1603–1604. 
  4. ^ Franklin CD, Pindborg JJ (Dec 1976). "The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor. A review and analysis of 113 cases.". Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 42 (6): 753–65. PMID 792760. doi:10.1016/0030-4220(76)90098-0. 
  5. ^ Hicks MJ, Flaitz CM, Wong ME, McDaniel RK, Cagle PT (May–Jun 1994). "Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: case report and review of the literature.". Head Neck. 16 (3): 272–7. PMID 8026959. doi:10.1002/hed.2880160311. 
  6. ^ Anavi Y, Kaplan I, Citir M, Calderon S (Mar 2003). "Clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: clinical and radiographic characteristics". Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 95 (3): 332–9. PMID 12627106. doi:10.1067/moe.2003.8. 
  7. ^ Gopalakrishnan R, Simonton S, Rohrer MD, Koutlas IG (Dec 2006). "Cystic variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor.". Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 102 (6): 773–7. PMID 17138180. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.09.029. 
  • Zahid, Arsalan from Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology
  • Kahn, Michael A. Basic Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Volume 1. 2001.