Carmine Caracciolo, 5th Prince of Santo Buono
Carmine Nicolao Caracciolo, 5th Prince of Santo Buono, Grandee of Spain (July 6, 1671, Bucchianico, Naples—July 26, 1726, Madrid) was Spanish viceroy of Peru from October 5, 1716 to January 26, 1720.
His name was spelt several different ways, including Carmine Nicola Caracciolo, Carmine Niccolo Caracciolo, Carmine Nicolás Caracciolo and Carmino Nicolás Caracciolo.
Carmine Caracciolo was a descendant of an old noble family of Naples and was a prince of the Holy Roman Empire. He was exiled from Naples in 1707 when it passed to the Crown of Austria, because he was a supporter of the Bourbons. His property was confiscated. A cultured man of letters, he was ambassador in Rome and Venice (1702). He married Donna Giovanna Costanza Ruffo dei Duchi di Bagnara.
He was the first Italian to be named viceroy of Peru. This occurred in 1713, although he delayed some time in traveling to America. He arrived in Cartagena de Indias on the warships of the Count of Vega Florida, where he became aware of the corruption in the politics and commerce of the viceroyalty. He brought with him orders from the Crown to end the French contraband, something that had been protected and encouraged by his immediate predecessors.
He entered Lima and took up his office on October 5, 1716. In celebration of his arrival, the poet Peralta published a panegyric in his honor, as did Bermúdez de la Torre, "El sol en el zodíaco". Both are extravagant in their praise for the new viceroy.
In 1717 the Viceroyalty of New Granada was created in northern Peru, from the Audiencias of Bogotá, Quito and Panamá. However this establishment lasted only until 1724, when the territories were returned to the Viceroyalty of Peru. (The Viceroyalty of New Grenada was reestablished on a more permanent basis in 1734.)
Among the notable events of his administration were the following. He was unable to halt the contraband. During his administration missionaries made many converts in the mountains, and the College of Ocopa was founded. An epidemic affected 60,000 of the Indigenous. A royal order prohibited the branding of black slaves. Because of abuse by encomenderos of the system of mita, Caracciolo solicited its abolition. However, the king did not act on his recommendations.
On August 15, 1719 the first total eclipse of the sun recorded in Lima since the Spanish conquest occurred, just before noon. It was necessary to light house lights, and the eclipse inspired processions of penitents.
He served as viceroy until 1720. He died in 1727.
- In full, 'Don Carmine Nicolás Caracciolo, quinto príncipe de Santo Buono, octavo duque de Castel de Sangro, duodécimo marqués de Buquianico, conde de Esquiabi, de Santobido y de Capracota, barón de Monteferrato, Castillón, Belmonte, Roca Espinalberti, Frainefrica, Grandinarca y Castelnuovo, señor de Nalbeltide y de la ciudad de Auñón, y grande de España de primera clase'.
- (in Spanish) Short biography
- (in Spanish) A little more information
- (in Spanish) The establishment of New Grenada
Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón
|Viceroy of Peru
Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón