Carol Patrice Christ

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Carol Patrice Christ (born 1945[1]) is a feminist historian, theologian, author, and foremother of the Goddess movement. She is the author of the widely reprinted essay "Why Women Need the Goddess,"[2] which argues in favor of the concept of there having been an ancient religion of a supreme goddess.


In the spring of 1978, Christ presented "Why Women Need the Goddess" as the keynote address at the "Great Goddess Re-emerging" conference." It was first published in Heresies: The Great Goddess Issue (1978), pgs. 8-13.[3] Christ has written five influential books on women's spirituality and feminist theology. Carol P. Christ also co-edited the classic feminist religion anthologies Weaving the Visions: New Patterns in Feminist Spirituality (1989) and Womanspirit Rising (1979/1989); the latter included her essay Why Women Need the Goddess.[3] Both anthologies included feminist religious writing from writers from a very diverse range of religious backgrounds. She holds a PhD from Yale University. Carol P. Christ has taught at major universities in the United States, including Columbia University, Harvard Divinity School, Pomona College, San Jose State, and the California Institute of Integral Studies. As director of the Ariadne Institute, she conducts pilgrimages to sacred sites in Greece containing artifacts of matriarchal religion.[4] She has for many years been a resident of the Greek island of Lesbos, the home of the poet Sappho.[5][6]




  • Christ, Carol P. (Spring 1978). "Why Women Need the Goddess" (PDF). HERESIES: A Feminist Publication on Art and Politics. Heresies Collective. 2 (1): 8–13.
  • —— (2008). "Ecofeminism: Women, Nature, Dualism and Process-Relational Philosophy.". In Weber, Michel; Desmond, Will (eds.). Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought. 1. Heusenstamm, Germany: Ontos Verlag. pp. 87–98. ISBN 9783938793923.
  • —— (2004). "Carol P. Christ". In Braude, Ann (ed.). Transforming the Faiths of Our Fathers: Women Who Changed American Religion. St. Martin's Press. pp. 97–113. ISBN 978-1403964601.

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