Carolyn Brooks

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Carolyn Branch Brooks (born July 8, 1946) is an American microbiologist known for her research in immunology, nutrition, and crop productivity.

Early life and education[edit]

Brooks was born July 8, 1946 in Richmond, Virginia to Shirley Booker Branch, an antique store owner, and Charles Walker Branch, a truck driver. Her grandparents and her older sister also helped raise her. She attended high school on the north side of Richmond. In the 1950s the family moved across town and while this helped take care of some of the problems they were having financially it made schooling a little more difficult for the children. Brooks wanted to attend her old school so every day she would ride the public bus across town. “Every day, Carolyn simply got on, paid her fare, and sat behind the driver, without realizing that, according to the segregation laws of the time, she should have sat at the back of the bus. When the first Civil Rights demonstrations began in Richmond, she discovered that she had been an activist without knowing it.” As a young student she attended a special summer school for African American science students held at Virginia Union University in Richmond. Here she was inspired by the work of a guest speaker's work in medical microbiology. Along with the support of parents, Brooks had many great teachers who encouraged her to pursue her interests in science. After being offered scholarships to six different universities, she chose to attend Tuskegee University in Alabama to study microbiology. At the end of her second year of study she married Henry Brooks, an education student at Tuskegee University. During her undergraduate career she had her first two children, both boys. She graduated in 1968 then went on to get a master's degree from Tuskegee. She had her next two children, both girls during this time.[1][2][3]

Research[edit]

Brooks went on to do research at the Veteran's Administration Hospital before working on her Ph.D. She received her doctoral degree from Ohio State University in 1977. Her dissertation research focused on how T-cells destroy microbes. She then went on to study nutritional needs of the elderly at Kentucky State University. Through her research she discovered a connection between trace amounts of minerals in a patient's hair and diet, thereby enabling the recognition of some medical problems caused by poor diet. In 1981 Dr. Brooks accepted a research and mentoring position at the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) in Princess Anne, Maryland. After 13 years at UMES she became the Dean of the School of Agriculture and Natural Sciences and became the 1890 Research Director. In 1997 she became the Executive Director to the President and Chief of Staff. Dr. Brooks' research at UMES focused on agricultural productivity. This includes increasing plant resistance to predators through multiple methods (both selective breeding and genetic engineering), the effects of various agricultural practices (e.g. the use of poultry litter,[4][5][6] calf weaning,[7][8] composting...[9]), and relationships with microbes. Brooks' microbial work focused broadly on symbiosis including the relationship between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the legume family[10] and other specific interactions between microbes and various crops including strawberries.[11]

Global Impact[edit]

During the years of 1984-85 she traveled to Togo and Senegal in West Africa. Here she researched methods to increase productivity of the African groundnut, eventually leading to increased productivity of many different food crops in West Africa.[1] As a member of the U.S. A.I.D.-U.S.D.A. team she assisted in establishing collaborative relationships with research centers and universities in South Africa. She also formally represented UMES in meetings with Egyptian universities.[1][2]

Awards[edit]

  • Award at the first annual White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities in 1988 given to professors for "exemplary achievements as educators, researchers, and role models"
  • Award from Maryland Association for Higher Education in 1990[1][2]
  • George Washington Carver Public Service Hall of Fame Award from the Professional Agricultural Workers Conference in 2013[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Kessler, James H. (1996). Distinguished African American scientists of the 20th century ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press. ISBN 0-89774-955-3.
  2. ^ a b c Krapp, Kristine (1990). Notable black American scientists. NY: Gale. ISBN 0-7876-2789-5.
  3. ^ Kessler, James, H (1996). Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-89774-955-3.
  4. ^ Morant, M., C. Brooks, H. Ekperigin, and E. Phillip. 1997. Recovery of Salmonella and E. coli from soil amended with poultry litter. Page 59 In Proceedings, 11th Biennial Research Symposium, Association of Research Directors, San Antonio, Texas.
  5. ^ Morant, M.A., and C.B. Brooks. 1994. Reaction of Heterodera glycines to application of poultry manure on the Delmarva Peninsula. Phytopathology 84:546.
  6. ^ Casasola, J., M. Morant, and C. Brooks. 1994. Interaction of poultry litter and soybean cyst nematode: influence on soybean production. Proceedings, 10th Biennial Research Symposium of the Association of Research Directors, New Orleans, LA.
  7. ^ Mollett, T.A., C.B. Brooks, and E.A. Leighton. 1989. Effect of total CMT score and milk quality of the dam upon calf weaning weight in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 67 (Suppl. 1): 467.
  8. ^ Mollett, T. A., C. B. Brooks and E. A. Leighton. 1988. Milk quality, composition and isolation of microorganisms from the mammary gland of the dam associated with reduced calf weaning weight in beef cattle. J. Animal Sci. 66 (Suppl. 1 ): 448.
  9. ^ Mollett, T.A. and C. B. Brooks. 1994. Composting as a method of on farm animal carcass disposal for limited resource farmers. Proceedings, 10th Biennial Research Symposium of the Association of Research Directors, New Orleans, LA.
  10. ^ Brooks, C.B., R.B. Dadson, B.M. Green. 1994. Symbiotic effectiveness of African Bradyrhizobium spp. with U.S. Soybean cultivars. Tropical Agriculture 71: 22 - 25.
  11. ^ Mitchell, V., C. Brooks and M. Morant. 1999. Effect of nutrient source on quality and yield of strawberry grown in Verticillium – infested soil. HortScience 34(3): 474
  12. ^ "ERROR: The requested URL could not be retrieved". 2013-06-20. Archived from the original on 2018-04-03. Retrieved 2018-04-03.