A Cartazzi axle is a design of leading or trailing wheel support used worldwide. The design was used extensively on the former LNER's Pacific steam locomotives and named after its inventor F.I. Cartazzi, formerly of the Great Northern Railway. It should not be confused with a pony truck as it does not pivot at all. The axle does, however, have sideways play built in to accommodate tight curves. Cartazzi's design causes the weight of the locomotive to exert a self-centring action on the trailing wheels.
On small scale models the trailing wheels of Cartazzi-axled locomotives are often flangeless to allow negotiation of tighter, non-prototypical curves, or the Cartazzi axle has been replaced with a pony truck for the same reason.
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The leading and trailing carrying axles had sideplay through Cartazzi sliding axleboxes
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The leading pair of wheels had the Cartazzi form of axle box...
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... the coupled wheelbase, which is 16ft. 6in., is not rigid, the leading axle boxes having 1¼in. side play. This is compensated for in the leading length of the coupling rods and controlled by sliding caps on the axle boxes on the Cartazzi principle.
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