Catharina Serafin

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Catharina Serafin .[1] was a Prussian lady who had an enchondroma removed from her cardiac region, leaving the chest wall open except from a thin skin layer. This allowed the German physician Hugo von Ziemssen in 1892 to do the first cardiac pacing experiments ever, giving understanding to how the heart works electrically.


  1. ^ Mahapatra, Srijoy (2009). History of Cardiac Pacing. Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79403-7_1.