Celtic Orthodox Church
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The Celtic Orthodox Church (COC) is a small autocephalous church which derives from the church formerly known as the Catholic Apostolic Church (Catholicate of the West) and, before that, as the Ancient British Church and the Orthodox Church of the British Isles (OCBI), which was constituted by the Syriac Orthodox Church to develop an Orthodox church in the Western (Celtic) tradition without recourse to its Oriental roots.
The Ancient British Church was canonically established with the consecration of Mar Julius (Jules Ferrette) in 1866 by Mar Boutros (Boutros ibn Salmo Mesko) who later became Patriarch Mar Ignatius Peter IV of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. However, as an autocephalous church, the Celtic Orthodox Church is not, and never has been, subject to the Syriac Orthodox Church and is not part of the Oriental Orthodox Church. The Celtic Orthodox Church is Weston Orthodox (part of the Communion of Western Orthodox Churches - see below) with its own Liturgy based on ancient Celtic codices. It is not part of or associated with Western Rite Orthodoxy.
The Celtic Orthodox Church is neither Monophysite nor Miaphysite in theology. Its position with regard to the Ecumenical Councils might best be described as Pro-Chalcedonian, that is to say it accepts the teaching of all seven councils, but acknowledges that only the first three were truly ecumenical. The Celtic Orthodox Church, therefore, shares the Eastern Orthodox doctrine that Christ, the second Person of the Holy Trinity, is one Person with two Natures as defined at the Council of Chalcedon.
In 1866, with the sanction of Patriarch Ignatius Ya'qub (Jacob) II of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, Mar Julius (Jules Ferrette) was consecrated by Mar Boutros ibn Salmo Mesko) who later became Patriarch Mor Ignatius Peter IV of Antioch, and dispatched to form an indigenous Orthodox church in Western Europe, which was not in any way subject to the Syriac Orthodox Church or the Patriarch of Antioch. The consecration was witnessed by the British Consul at Damascus. Mar Julius was given the title of Bishop of Iona and its Dependencies.
The Early Years 1866 to 1897 "Ancient British Church"
An early leader was Richard Williams Morgan ("Mar Pelagius I") (1815–1899). The church adopted the name Ancient British Church and aimed at the restoration or re-creation of the form of Christianity that they believed existed in the British Isles) during the earliest centuries of the Christian era. Morgan was consecrated a bishop by Jules Ferrette (Mar Julius) on 6 March 1874. Morgan was designated as first patriarch of the newly formed church.
Merger in 1897 "Free Protestant Episcopal Church"
On 2 November 1897, three jurisdictions merged to form the Free Protestant Episcopal Church (full name: Free Protestant Episcopal Church of England). The three were the Ancient British Church (then led by its second patriarch, Charles Isaac Stevens), the Free Protestant Church (founded and led by Bishop Leon Chechemian) and the Nazarene Episcopal Church (founded and led by Bishop James Martin). Leon Chechemian was appointed first primus of the new church and he served in this capacity for three years until 30 December 1900, at which point he was succeeded by Patriarch Stevens.
The patriarch of the Ancient British Church and the primus of the Free Protestant Episcopal Church then coincided in Stevens and his successors until 18 May 1939 when Bishop Monzani-Heard appointed William Hall as primus of the Free Protestant Episcopal Church, but retained the role of patriarch.
Merger in 1944 "Catholicate of the West"
On 23 March 1944, a deed of declaration under Monzani-Heard united the Ancient British Church, the Old Catholic Orthodox Church, the British Orthodox Catholic Church and the Independent Catholic Church into a single organization, to be called the "Catholicate of the West". On 28 March 1944, Hugh George de Willmott Newman was chosen as "Catholicos". He was consecrated and enthroned on 10 April 1944 as "Mar Georgius". Newman's family background had been within the Catholic Apostolic Church (the "Irvingites") and he was influenced by that movement.
At Christmas 1944, the newly formed Catholicate resolved to bring its ministry, organization, usages and worship into general agreement with the pattern and model of the Catholic Apostolic Church, and the catholicate adopted the new name "Catholic Apostolic Church (Catholicate of the West)" with a sub-title "Western Orthodox Catholic Church". The liturgy of the Catholic Apostolic Church was adopted, with a supplement. However, the Catholicate was fairly short-lived and was dissolved in 1953.
On 29 January 1945, Monzani-Heard resigned the office of British patriarch to Newman. An attempt was made in 1959 to revive the Catholicate of the West but this did not survive beyond January 1969.
List of Patriarchs
The following are the patriarchs in succession:
- Mar Pelagius I (Richard Williams Morgan), consecrated in 1874 by Julius Ferrete.
- Mar Theophilus I (Charles Isaac Stevens), consecrated in 1879 by Mar Pelagius. (Mar Theophilus was primus from 1889 to his death in 1917).
- Mar Jacobus I Antipas (James Martin), consecrated in November 1890 by Leon Chechemian who was himself consecrated in May 1890 by Mar Theophilus (and Bishop Alfred Spencer Richardson). (Mar Jacobus I Antipas was primus from 1917 to his death in 1919).
- Mar Andries I (Andrew Charles Albert McLaglan), consecrated in 1897 by Leon Chechemian and Mar Jacobus I Antipas. (Mar Andries I was primus from 1919 to his death in 1928).
- Mar Jacobus II (Herbert James Monzani-Heard), consecrated in 1922 by Mar Andries I. (Mar Jacobus II was primus from circa 1928/1930 to 29 January 1945)(died 1947).
- Mar Georgius I (Hugh George de Willmott Newman), consecrated in 1944 by Mar Basilius (William Bernard Crow) on behalf of Mar John Emmanuel (Arthur Wolfort Brooks). Mar Basilius had himself been consecrated in 1943 by Mar Jacobus II. (Mar Georgius was primus from 29 January 1945 to his death in 1979).
- Mar Seraphim I (William Henry Hugo Newman-Norton), consecrated in 1977 by his cousin Mar Georgius, assisted by two other bishops, Bishop Smethurst and Bishop Raoult. Mar Seraphim I was primus from 1979.
Proposed Alliance with Coptic Orthodox Church circa 1994
In 1994, Abba (Mar) Seraphim, following negotiations with Pope Shenouda III, took the UK branch of the Catholic Apostolic Church into union with the Coptic (Oriental) Orthodox Church, taking the name British Orthodox Church.
The Breton members of the Catholic Apostolic Church, who, under Bishop-Abbot Mael, had been made party to the negotiations with the Coptic Church, decided against joining in the 1994 alliance with the Copts, considering that their mission to promote and develop Western Orthodoxy was better served in its independence.
Interestingly, BOC's alliance with the Coptic Church continued for 21 years until October 2015, at which time the BOC withdrew from the alliance, considering that in the light of changed circumstances its objective would now be better served by its independence.
The French Eparchy becomes autocephalous as "L' Eglise Orthodoxe Celtique" ("Celtic Orthodox Church")
Accordingly, the remaining bishops of the Holy Synod elected Mgr Mael (Paul-Eduard de Fournier de Brescia), consecrated in 1980 by Mar Seraphim, to be primate of the former French eparchy, assuming the name L'Église Orthodoxe Celtique (the Celtic Orthodox Church – officially the Celtic Apostolic Church) to indicate that its jurisdiction covered the area of the former Celtic missions.
In 2014, following the death of HB Metropolitan Mael, Mgr Marc (Jean-Claude Scheerens), consecrated in 1998 by Mgr Mael, was enthroned as primate of the Celtic Orthodox Church, having been elected by the Holy Synod.
The Celtic Orthodox Church in Britain
When, in 1998, some of the UK clergy who had followed Abba Seraphim into the Coptic Patriarchate subsequently asked to join the Celtic Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Mael received them and the Celtic Orthodox Church in Britain was given the status of an eparchy or province.
In 1999, a new bishop/eparch, Stephen Robson, was elected and consecrated for Britain; he had been one of the British priests who had chosen to leave the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate.
In early 2007, the administration of the British eparchy came under the direct care of the primate when Bishop Stephen resigned.
Nations in which the Celtic Orthodox Church is present
The Celtic Orthodox Church has parishes in France, Switzerland and the United States, including a monastery (Our Lady of the Holy Presence) at Toms Brook, Virginia. Since the end of 2017 the Celtic Orthodox Church is now represented once more in Australia. In the United Kingdom, following deaths, retirements and secessions, the Celtic Orthodox Church now has one parish (St Gwenn's, Wessex).
- Ancient British Church in North America
- Free Protestant Episcopal Church (now renamed "Anglican Free Communion")
- The name "Catholic Apostolic Church (Catholicate of the West)" was adopted circa 1944 when the church was under the leadership of Hugh George de Willmott Newman (Mar Georgius). Mar Georgius's own family background and early life were in the "Catholic Apostolic Church" (often called "Irvingite"), a church founded in the 19th century. Mar Georgius was influenced by the "Irvingite" movement , but his "Catholic Apostolic Church (Catholicate of the West)" is not the same as the "Irvingite" Catholic Apostolic Church.
- Leon Chechemian may have been earlier (1879) consecrated by Leon Chorchorunian. According to Bain ("Bishops Irregular: an international directory of independent bishops", 1985), Brandreth ("Episcopi Vagantes and the Anglican Church", 1961) considers the claim that Chechemian was consecrated by Chorchorunian as doubtful.