Central Valley School District (Pennsylvania)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Central Valley School District
Map of Beaver County Pennsylvania School Districts.png
Map showing the former districts of Center Area and Monaca now constituting Central Valley School District.
Address
160 Baker Road Extension
Monaca, Pennsylvania, 15061
United States
Coordinates 40°39′39″N 80°18′14″W / 40.660901°N 80.303789°W / 40.660901; -80.303789 (District office)Coordinates: 40°39′39″N 80°18′14″W / 40.660901°N 80.303789°W / 40.660901; -80.303789 (District office)
District information
Type Public
Grades Kindergarten-12th
Established 2009 (2009)
Superintendent Nicholas Perry
Business administrator John Maly
School board Thomas Mowad (President), Dennis Bloom, Thomas King, David Ambrose, Joseph O'Neill, Frank Shuster, Nicholas Unis, Dante Ross, George Zaritski
Director of education Robert Lee
Schools

5 total:

  • Central Valley High School
  • Central Valley Middle School
  • Todd Lane Elementary School
  • Center Grange Primary School
  • Central Valley Cyber Academy
District ID 4200824[1][2]
Students and staff
Students 2,382[2]
Teachers 157[2]
Staff 280[2]
Student-teacher ratio 15:1[2]
District mascot Warriors
Colors      Carolina Blue
     Navy Blue
Other information
Website www.centralvalleysd.org

The Central Valley School District was established on July 1, 2009. It comprises the former Center Area and Monaca school districts, and includes the municipalities of Center Township, Potter Township, and Monaca Borough in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. The Central Valley School District represents the first “Voluntary” merger of public school districts in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The merger was a five-year process due to opposition from those who opposed the plan.[3]

Central Valley School District encompasses approximately 23 square miles (60 km2). There are approximately 18,000 residents living throughout the Central Valley School District communities. According to CVSD officials, in school year 2009-10, the CVSD provided basic educational services to 2,449 pupils. The District employed: 176 teachers, 128 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 9 administrators. The school had 2 superintendents due to retaining both superintendent of the former districts until the completion of their contracts. CVSD received more than $12.7 million in state funding in school year 2009-10. In 2010-2011, the District had 2,333 pupils enrolled. The district employed 139 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 16.77:1.[4]

Central Valley School District operates four schools: Center Grange Primary School, Todd Lane Elementary School, Central Valley Middle School and Central Valley High School. High school students may choose to attend Beaver County Career and Technology Center for training in the construction and mechanical trades. Beaver Valley Intermediate Unit IU27 provides the District with a wide variety of services like specialized education for disabled students and hearing, speech and visual disability services and professional development for staff and faculty. The Central Valley School Board closed Monaca Junior Senior High School due to low enrollment in June 2010.

Governance[edit]

Central Valley School Board is governed by 9 individual, locally elected board members (serve four-year terms), the Pennsylvania State Board of Education, the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[5] The federal government controls programs it funds like Title I funding for low-income children in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act, which mandates the district focus resources on student success in acquiring reading and math skills. The Superintendent and Business Manager are appointed by the school board. The Superintendent is the chief administrative officer with overall responsibility for all aspects of operations, including education and finance. The Business Manager is responsible for budget and financial operations. Neither of these officials are voting members of the School Board. The School Board enters into individual employment contracts for these positions. In Pennsylvania, public school districts are required to give 150 days notice to the Superintendent regarding renewal of the employment contract.[6] Central Valley School Board has posted the Superintendent's job performance evaluation online.[7]

The Board fails to provide annual tax and budget information on the District's website.[8]

Current Buildings[edit]

Building Grades Principal
Central Valley High School 9-12 Mr. Shawn McCreary
Central Valley Middle School 6-8 Mr. Brian Dolph
Todd Lane Elementary School 3-5 Dr. Kelly Sherbondy,
Center Grange Primary School K-2 Mrs. Carla Kosanovich,

Academic achievement[edit]

Central Valley School District was ranked 227th out of 495 Pennsylvania school districts, by the Pittsburgh Business Times in 2014.[9] The ranking is based on the last 3 years of student academic achievement as demonstrated by PSSAs results in: reading, writing, math and science and the three Keystone Exams (literature, Algebra 1, Biology I) in high school.[10] Three Pennsylvania public school districts were excluded because they do not operate high schools (Saint Clair Area School District, Midland Borough School District, Duquesne City School District). The PSSAs are given to all children in grades 3rd through 8th. Adapted PSSA examinations are given to children in the special education programs. Writing exams were given to children in 5th and 8th grades.[11]

  • 2013 - 268th
  • 2012 - 240th[12]
  • 2011 - 161st [13]
  • 2010 - 108th
Overachievers Academic Ranking

In 2014, the Pittsburgh Business Times also reported an Overachievers Ranking for 105 local region school districts. Central Valley School District ranked 88th. In 2013, the District was 85th. [14] The editor describes the ranking as: "a ranking answers the question - which school districts do better than expectations based upon economics? This rank takes the Honor Roll rank and adds the percentage of students in the district eligible for free and reduced-price lunch into the formula. A district finishing high on this rank is smashing expectations, and any district above the median point is exceeding expectations."[15]

  • 2012 - 372nd statewide[16]
  • 2011 - 318th statewide
Allegheny Regional ranking - (includes 103 public school districts in
Beaver, Butler, Allegheny, Armstrong and Fayette Counties)
  • 2014 - 52nd[17]
  • 2013 - 60th
  • 2012 - 58th
  • 2011 - 43rd

District AYP status history[edit]

In 2012, Central Valley School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status.[18] In 2011, Central Valley School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In 2011, 94 percent of the 500 Pennsylvania public school districts achieved the No Child Left Behind Act progress level of 72% of students reading on grade level and 67% of students demonstrating on grade level math. In 2011, 46.9 percent of Pennsylvania school districts achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) based on student performance. An additional 37.8 percent of Pennsylvania public school districts made AYP based on a calculated method called safe harbor, 8.2 percent on the growth model and 0.8 percent on a two-year average performance.[19][20] Central Valley School District achieved AYP status 2010.[21]

Graduation rate[edit]

In 2013, Central Valley School District's graduation rate was 95.8%.[22] In 2012, the Central Valley School District graduation rate was 90%.[23] In 2011, the Central Valley School District graduation rate was 100%.[24] In 2010, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4-year cohort graduation rate. Central Valley High School's rate was 100% for 2010.[25]

High school[edit]

Central Valley High School is located at 160 Baker Road Ext., Monaca. In 2013, enrollment was reported as 745 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 29.9% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 10% of pupils received special education services, while 2% of pupils were identified as gifted. The School employed 38 teachers.[26] Per the PA Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, Central Valley School District reported an enrollment of 622 pupils in grades 9th through 12th, with 88 pupils eligible for a federal free or reduced-price lunch. The school employed 33.5 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 18.5:1.[27] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2 of the teachers were rated "Non-Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[28] The high school facilities were renovated to include: a state of the art technology center with five computer labs and a TV production center; a 400-seat cafeteria and food court; a lighting and sound system in the auditorium; and an athletic complex with artificial turf.

Western PA ranking

In 2014, the Pittsburgh Business Times ranked Central Valley High School’s eleventh grade 52nd out of 105 western Pennsylvania high schools, based on the last three years of student academic achievement in Pennsylvania System of School Assessments (PSSA) in: reading, math, writing and science.[29] (Includes schools in: Allegheny County, Beaver County, Butler County, Fayette County, Westmoreland County, and Washington County)

2013 School Performance Profile

Central Valley High School achieved 67.1 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 80% of tested students were on grade level. In Algebra 1, 72% showed on grade level skills at the end of the course. In Biology, 54% showed on grade level science understanding.[30] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher. Pennsylvania 11th grade students no longer take the PSSAs. Instead, beginning in 2012, they take the Keystone Exams at the end of the associated course.[31]

AYP History

In 2012, Central Valley High School declined to School Improvement I due to lagging student achievement in reading and mathematics.[32] The School's administration was required by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, to develop a School Improvement Plan to address the low student achievement. Under the Pennsylvania Accountability System, the school district must pay for additional tutoring for struggling students.[33] The High School is eligible for special, extra funding under School Improvement Grants which the school must apply for each year.[34]

In 2011, Central Valley High School was in Warning AYP status due to low student math achievement.[35]

PSSA results

Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered from 2003 through 2012, in all Pennsylvania public high schools. The exams were administered in the Spring of each school year. The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014. The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam included content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies. The mathematics exam included: algebra I, algebra II, geometry and trigonometry. The standards were first published in 1998 and are mandated by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education.[36]

In 2013, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania changed its high school assessments to the Keystone Exams in Algebra 1, Reading/literature and Biology1. The exams are given at the end of the course, rather than all in the spring of the student's 11th grade year.[37]

11th Grade Reading
  • 2012 - 70% on grade level, (11% below basic). State - 67% of 11th graders are on grade level.[38]
  • 2011 - 73% (13% below basic). State - 69.1%[39]
  • 2010 - 77% (11% below basic). State - 66% [40]
11th Grade Math
  • 2012 - 62% on grade level (20% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.[41]
  • 2011 - 60% (22% below basic). State - 60.3%[42]
  • 2010 - 68% (19% below basic). State - 59%[43]
11th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 42% on grade level (13% below basic). State - 42% of 11th graders were on grade level.[44]
  • 2011 - 40% (13% below basic). State - 40%[45]
  • 2010 - 42% (12% below basic). State - 39%

Science in Motion Central Valley High School took advantage of a state program called Science in Motion which brought college professors and sophisticated science equipment to the school to raise science awareness and to provide inquiry-based experiences for the students. The Science in Motion program was funded by a state appropriation and cost the school nothing to participate.[46] Westminster College provided the science enrichment experiences to schools in the region.

Graduation requirements[edit]

The Central Valley School Board has determined that a pupil must earn 28 credits to graduate, including: Math 5 credits, English 4 credits, social studies 4 credits, science 4 credits, Physical Education and health 2.5 credits, speech 1 credit, technology 1 credit and electives 6.5 credits.[47] In order to graduate students must demonstrate proficiency on the PSSA exams and the state required Keystones Exams when implemented. Students not achieving at the proficiency level on PSSA or district alternatives assessments are required to attend the C-VAP program. The C-VAP program provides tutoring to assist students in achieving academic success.

By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a graduation project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.[48] Central Valley’s graduation project consists of six components: 40 Community service hours, Job Shadowing, writing a resume, writing a paper describing their experience, a presentation using a visual aid. Effective with the graduating class of 2017, the Pennsylvania State Board of Education eliminated the state mandate that students complete a culminating project in order to graduate.[49]

By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, beginning with the class of 2017, public school students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, and English Literature by passing the Keystone Exams.[50] The exam is given at the end of the course. Keystone Exams replace the PSSAs for 11th grade.[51]

Students have several opportunities to pass the exam. Schools are mandated to provide targeted assistance to help the student be successful. Those who do not pass after several attempts can perform a project in order to graduate.[52][53] For the class of 2019, a Composition exam will be added. For the class of 2020, passing a civics and government exam will be added to the graduation requirements.[54] In 2011, Pennsylvania high school students field tested the Algebra 1, Biology and English Lit exams. The statewide results were: Algebra 1 38% on grade level, Biology 35% on grade level and English Lit - 49% on grade level.[55] Individual student, school or district reports were not made public, although they were reported to district officials by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Students identified as having special needs and qualifying for an Individual Educational Program (IEP) may graduate by meeting the requirements of their IEP.

SAT scores[edit]

In 2013, Central Valley School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 489. The Math average score was 488. The Writing average score was 473. The College Board reported that statewide scores were: 494 in reading, 504 in math and 482 in writing. The nationwide SAT results were the same as in 2012.[56]

In 2012, 144 Central Valley School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 489. The Math average score was 488. The Writing average score was 473. The statewide Verbal SAT exams results were: Verbal 491, Math 501, Writing 480. In the USA, 1.65 million students took the exams achieving scores: Verbal 496, Math 514, Writing 488. According to the College Board the maximum score on each section was 800, and 360 students nationwide scored a perfect 2,400.

In 2011, 158 students took the SAT exams. The district's Verbal Average Score was 479. The Math average score was 482. The Writing average score was 467.[57] Pennsylvania ranked 40th among states with SAT scores: Verbal - 493, Math - 501, Writing - 479.[58] In the United States 1.65 million students took the exam in 2011. They averaged 497 (out of 800) verbal, 514 math and 489 in writing.[59]

AP Courses[edit]

In 2013, Central Valley High School offered 8 Advanced Placement (AP) courses at a higher cost than regular courses. The student pays the fee for the exam which was $89 per test per pupil in 2012. Students have the option of taking College Board approved courses and then taking the College Board's examination in the Spring. Students, who achieve a 3 or better on the exam, may be awarded college credits at US universities and colleges. Each higher education institution sets its own standards about what level of credits are awarded to a student based on their AP exam score. Most higher education give credits for scores of 4 or 5. Some schools also give credits for scores of 3. High schools give credits towards graduation to students who take the school's AP class. At Central Valley High School 11% of students who took an AP course earned a 3 or better on the exam.[60]

Cyber Academy[edit]

Central Valley School District provides a 7th through 12th grade cyber school. The program is provided by e2020.[61] The program mirrors the courses in the traditional buildings. Students graduating through this program have access to all school activities including: prom and the cap and gown graduation ceremony. Student can participate in the summer to make up credits. Students who are homebound due to illness or injury also can use the program to continue their education.[62]

Middle school[edit]

Central Valley Middle School is located at 1500 Allen Avenue, Monaca. In 2013, enrollment was 527 pupils, in grades 6th through 8th, with 35% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 11.7% of pupils received special education services, while 1.5% of pupils were identified as gifted.[63] According to a 2013 report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[64]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, the school reported an enrollment of 423 pupils in grades 6th through 8th, with 79 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 24 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 17.6:1.[65] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind while 12% of the teachers had an emergency teaching certification.[66]

2013 School Performance Profile

Central Valley Middle School achieved 73.8 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, writing, mathematics and science achievement. In reading, just 77.7% of the students were on grade level. In Mathematics/Algebra 1,78.5 % of the students showed on grade level skills. In Science, only 58% of the 8th graders demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, 71% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[67]

Western Pennsylvania region ranking

In 2014, Central Valley Middle School's eighth grade ranked 54th out of 105 western Pennsylvania middle schools based on the last three years of student academic achievement in Pennsylvania System of School Assessments (PSSA) in: reading, math, writing and three years of science.[68] The Seventh Grade ranked 64th, while the Sixth Grade ranked 65th in the region.

AYP history

In 2012, Central Valley Middle School achieved AYP status.[69] In 2011, Central Valley Middle School achieved AYP status.[70]

PSSA Results

Sixth and seventh grades have been tested in reading and mathematics since 2006. Eighth graders are tested in: reading, writing, mathematics and Science. Beginning in the Spring of 2013, eighth graders, who are enrolled in Algebra I take the Keystone Exam for Algebra I at the end of the course. The testing of 8th grade in reading and mathematics began in 1999, as a state initiative.[71] Testing in science began in 2007. The goal is for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014. The tests focus on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science.[72] The standards were published in 1998 and are mandated by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education.[73] In 2014, the Commonwealth adopted the Pennsylvania Core Standards - Mathematics.[74]

8th Grade Reading
  • 2012 - 82% on grade level 55% advanced (4% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 79% of 8th graders on grade level.[75]
  • 2011 - 86%, 59% advanced (4% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 81.8% of 8th graders on grade level.[76]
  • 2010 - 88%, 69% advanced (8% below basic). State - 81%
8th Grade Math
  • 2012 - 84% on grade level 54% advanced (8% below basic). State - 76% [77]
  • 2011 - 84%, 55% advanced (7% below basic). State - 76.9%
  • 2010 - 80%, 53% advanced (9% below basic). State - 75% [78]
8th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 55% on grade level (22% below basic). State - 59%[79]
  • 2011 - 60%, (21% below basic). State – 58.3%
  • 2010 - 77% (14% below basic). State – 57% [80]

Todd Lane Elementary School[edit]

Todd Lane Elementary School is located at 113 Todd Lane, Monaca. In 2013, the school's enrollment was 553 pupils in grades 3rd through 5th, with 34% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 11% of the pupils receive special education services, while less than 1% are identified as gifted.[81] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind.[82] The school is a federally designated Title I school.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, the school reported an enrollment of 507 pupils in grades 3rd through 5th, with 144 pupils eligible for a federal free or reduced-price lunch. The school employed 32 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 15:1.[83] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[84]

2013 School Performance Profile

Todd Lane Elementary School achieved a score of 76.8 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012-13, only 75.8% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 5th. In 3rd grade, 77% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, 81.9% were on grade level (3rd-5th grades). In 4th grade science, 88.6% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 62% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[85]

Western Pennsylvania academic ranking

In 2014, Todd Lane Elementary School's 5th grade ranked 48th out of 105 schools ranked. The fourth grade ranked 32nd, while the third grade ranked 53rd. The ranking was based on three years of PSSA test results in reading, math, science (4th grade) and writing (5th grade).[86]

AYP history

In 2010, 2011 and 2012, Todd Lane Elementary School achieved AYP status each school year.[87]

PSSA results

In the Spring of each school year, the 3rd graders take the PSSAs in math and reading. The fourth grade is tested in reading, math and science. The fifth grade is evaluated in reading, mathematics and writing. Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered beginning 2003 to all Pennsylvania public school students in grades 3rd-8th.[88] The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014.[89][90][91] The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam is given to 4th grades and includes content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies.[92]

4th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 95%, 63% advanced (1% below basic). State - 82%
  • 2011 - 90%, 61% advanced (1% below basic). State – 82.9%
  • 2010 - 89%, 58% advanced (2% below basic). State - 81%

Center Grange Primary School[edit]

Center Grange Primary School is located at 225 Center Grange Road, Aliquippa. In 2013, the school's enrollment was 544 pupils in grades kindergarten through 2nd, with 20.5% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 7.9% of the pupils receive special education services, while none were identified as gifted.[97] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind. The school provides half day and full day kindergarten.[98] The school is a federally designated Title I school.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, the school reported an enrollment of 457 pupils in grades kindergarten through 2nd, with 99 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 24 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 19:1.[99] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[100]

Special education[edit]

In December 2012, Central Valley School District Administration reported that 265 pupils or 11.1% of the district's pupils received Special Education services. Forty two percent of the identified students had a specific learning disability.[101] In December 2010, the District Administration reported that 276 pupils or 11% of the district's pupils received Special Education services. Forty two percent of the identified students had a specific learning disability.[102]

In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for special education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.[103] The Pennsylvania Special Education funding system assumes that 16% of the district’s students receive special education services. It also assumes that each student’s needs accrue the same level of costs.[104] The state requires each district to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[105] Overidentification of students, in order to increase state funding, has been an issue in the Commonwealth. Some districts have more than 20% of its students receiving special education services while others have 10% supported through special education.[106] The State requires each public school district and charter school to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[107] In 2012, the Obama Administration's US Department of Education issued a directive requiring schools include students with disabilities in extracurricular activities, including sports.[108]

The Central Valley School District received a $1,535,640 supplement for special education services in 2010.[109] For the 2011-2012, 2012-2013, 2013-2014 school years, all Pennsylvania public school districts received the same level of funding for special education that they received in 2010-11. This level funding is provided regardless of changes in the number of pupils who need special education services and regardless of the level of services the respective students required.[110][111] For the 2014-2015 school year, Central Valley School District will receive an increase to $1,551,430 from the Commonwealth for special education funding.[112] Additionally, the Commonwealth provides supplemental funding for extraordinarily impacted students. The District must apply for this added funding.

Gifted education[edit]

The District Administration reported that 25 of its students were gifted in 2010. The District Administration reported that over 30 of its students were gifted in 2009.[113] By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.[114][115][116]

Budget[edit]

Pennsylvania public school districts budget and expend funds according to procedures mandated by the General Assembly and the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE). An annual operating budget is prepared by school district administrative officials. A uniform form is furnished by the PDE and submitted to the board of school directors for approval prior to the beginning of each fiscal year on July 1.

Under Pennsylvania’s Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, all school districts of the first class A, second class, third class and fourth class must adopt a preliminary budget proposal. The proposal must include estimated revenues and expenditures and the proposed tax rates. This proposed budget must be considered by the Board no later than 90 days prior to the date of the election immediately preceding the fiscal year. The preliminary budget proposal must also be printed and made available for public inspection at least 20 days prior to its adoption. The board of school directors may hold a public hearing on the budget, but are not required to do so. The board must give at least 10 days’ public notice of its intent to adopt the final budget according to Act 1 of 2006.[117]

In 2013, the average teacher salary in Central Valley School District was $59,622 a year, while the cost of the benefits teachers received was $22,335 per employee, for a total annual average teacher compensation of $81,957.[118]

In 2011, the average teacher salary in CVSD was $55,510 a year, while the cost of the benefits teachers receive was $17,302 per employee, for a total annual average teacher compensation of $72,812.[119] According to a study conducted at the American Enterprise Institute, in 2011, public school teachers’ total compensation is roughly 50 percent higher than they would likely receive in the private sector.[81] The study found that the most generous benefits that teachers receive are not accounted for in many studies of compensation, including: pension, retiree health benefits and job security. Teachers work a 7.5-hour day with a 30-minute duty-free lunch and daily preparation period. Additionally the teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, dental insurance, vision insurance, 10 paid sick days, paid personal days, professional development reimbursement and many other benefits.[120]

Per pupil spending In 2010, the District's per pupil spending was $11,748.37.[121] By 2012-2013, the District's per pupil spending rose to $12,226.56.[122] Among the states, Pennsylvania’s total per pupil revenue (including all sources) ranked 11th at $15,023 per student, in 2008-2009.[123] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was $12,759.[124]

The U.S. Census Bureau reported that Pennsylvania spent $8,191 per pupil in school year 2000-01.[125] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was reported as $12,759.[126] Among the fifty states, Pennsylvania’s total per pupil revenue (including all sources) ranked 11th at $15,023 per student, in 2008-09.[127] Pennsylvania’s total revenue per pupil rose to $16,186 ranking 9th in the nation in 2011.[128]

Reserves In 2011, Central Valley School District reported having over $5 million in its reserve "rainy day" funds: $3,430,071 in its designated-reserved fund and $1,641,873 in its unreserved fund.[129] Pennsylvania public school district reserve funds are divided into two categories – designated and undesignated. The undesignated funds are not committed to any planned project. Designated funds and any other funds, such as capital reserves, are allocated to specific projects. School districts are required by state law to keep 5 percent of their annual spending in the undesignated reserve funds to preserve bond ratings. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, from 2003 to 2010, as a whole, Pennsylvania school districts amassed nearly $3 billion in reserved funds.[130] In 2005, the total reserve funds held by Pennsylvania public school districts was $1.9 billion.[131] By 2013, reserves held by Pennsylvania public school districts, as a whole, had increased to over $3.8 billion.[132][133] Central Valley School District reserves were reported as %5,135,511 in 2013.[134]

Merger In July 2009, the merger cost $1.2 million with the state and federal government covering 50% of the costs. Initially the elementary schools merged. The high school merged for the 2010-2011 school year. The board paid teachers a $28,000 retirement bonus to retire early.[135] The former superintendent of Monaca School District, Mike Thomas, retired in 2010 saving the district the substantial cost of keeping two superintendents.[136] Dan Matsook, the former Center Area superintendent was appointed as Central Valley School District's superintendent.[137]

In May 2012 the school board voted to eliminate 1 teaching position in order to help fill a $1.2 million budget shortfall. They also eliminated three paraprofessionals, two custodial workers and a part-time music position.

Audit In March 2013, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit of the District. The findings were reported to the School Board and the District’s administration.[138]

Tuition Students who live in the District's attendance area may choose to attend one of Pennsylvania's 157 public charter schools. A student living in a neighboring public school district or a foreign exchange student may seek admission to Central Valley School District. For these cases, the Pennsylvania Department of Education sets an annual tuition rate for each school district. It is the amount the public school district pays to a charter school for each resident student that attends the charter and it is the amount a nonresident student's parents must pay to attend the District's schools. The 2012 tuition rates are Elementary School - $7,958.67, High School - $9,959.65.[139]

Central Valley School District is funded by a combination of: a local earned income tax 0.5%, Mercantile Retail tax - .75% and whole sale rate of .5%, a property tax, a real estate transfer tax 0.5%, a per capita tax of $5 per person, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government.[140] Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. Interest earnings on accounts also provide nontax income to the District. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension income and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax, regardless of the level of the individual’s personal wealth.[141] The average Pennsylvania public school teacher pension in 2011 exceeds $60,000 a year plus they receive federal Social Security benefits: both are free of Pennsylvania state income tax and local income tax which funds local public schools.[142]

State basic education funding[edit]

According to a report from Representative Todd Stephens office, Central Valley School District receives 45.3% of its annual revenue from the state.[143]

For the 2014-15 school year, Central Valley School District will receive $8,355,015 in State Basic Education funding. The District will also receive $256,447 in new Ready To Learn Block grant. The State’s enacted Education Budget includes $5,526,129,000 for the 2014-2015 Basic Education Funding.[144] The Education budget also includes Accountability Block Grant funding at $100 million and $241 million in new Ready to Learn funding for public schools that focus on student achievement and academic success. The State is paying $500.8 million to Social Security on the school employees behalf and another $1.16 billion to the state teachers pension system (PSERS). In total, Pennsylvania’s Education budget for K-12 public schools is $10 billion. This was a $305 million increase over 2013-2014 state spending and the greatest amount ever allotted by the Commonwealth for its public schools.[145]

In the 2013-2014 school year, the Central Valley School District received a 1.5% increase or $8,355,015 in Pennsylvania Basic Education Funding. This is $125,400 more than its 2012-2013 state BEF to the District. Additionally, Central Valley School District received $132,053 in Accountability Block Grant funding to focus on academic achievement and level funding for special education services. Among the public school districts in Beaver County, Midland Borough School District received the highest percentage increase in BEF at 10.2%. The District has the option of applying for several other state and federal grants to increase revenues. The Commonwealth’s budget increased Basic Education Funding statewide by $123 million to over $5.5 billion. Most of Pennsylvania’s 500 public school districts received an increase of Basic Education Funding in a range of 0.9% to 4%. Eight public school districts received exceptionally high funding increases of 10% to 16%. The highest increase in state funding was awarded to Austin Area School District which received a 22.5% increase in Basic Education Funding.[146] The highest percent of state spending per student is in the Chester-Upland district, where roughly 78 percent comes from state coffers. In Philadelphia, it is nearly 49 percent.[147] As a part of the education budget, the state provided the PSERS (Pennsylvania school employee pension fund) with $1,017,000,000 and Social Security payments for school employees of $495 million.[148]

For the 2012-13 school year, the Central Valley School District received $8,224,510.[149] The Governor's Executive Budget for 2012-2013 included $9.34 billion for kindergarten through 12th grade public education, including $5.4 billion in basic education funding, which was an increase of $49 million over the 2011-12 budget. In addition, the Commonwealth provided $100 million for the Accountability Block Grant (ABG) program. Central Valley School District received $132,053 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The state also provided a $544.4 million payment for School Employees’ Social Security and $856 million for School Employees’ Retirement fund called PSERS.[150] This amount was a $21,823,000 increase (0.34%) over the 2011-2012 appropriations for Basic Education Funding, School Employees' Social Security, Pupil Transportation, Nonpublic and Charter School Pupil Transportation. Since taking office, Corbett’s first two budgets have restored more than $918 million in support of public schools, compensating for the $1 billion in federal stimulus dollars lost at the end of the 2010-11 school year.

In the 2011-2012 school year, Central Valley School District received a $8,224,676 allocation, of state Basic Education Funding.[151][152] Additionally, the School District received $132,053 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The enacted Pennsylvania state Education budget included $5,354,629,000 for the 2011-2012 Basic Education Funding appropriation. This amount is a $233,290,000 increase (4.6%) over the enacted State appropriation for 2010-2011.[153] The highest increase in state basic education funding was awarded to Duquesne City School District, which got a 49% increase in state funding for 2011-12.[154] In 2010, the district reported that 632 students received free or reduced-price lunches, due to the family meeting the federal poverty level.[155]

In the 2010-2011 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 2% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $8,389,170 to Central Valley SD . Among the districts in Beaver County, the highest increase went to Midland Borough School District which got a 7.57% increase. One hundred fifty Pennsylvania school districts received the base 2% increase. The highest increase in 2010-2011 went to Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County which received a 23.65% increase in state funding.[156] The state's hold harmless policy regarding state basic education funding continued where a district received at least the same amount as the year before, even where enrollment had significantly declined. The amount of increase each school district received was set by Governor Edward Rendell and then Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak, as a part of the state budget proposal given each February. This was the second year of Governor Rendell’s policy to fund some districts at a far greater rate than others.

In the 2009-2010 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 2% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $8,389,170 to Central Valley School District. Among the districts in Beaver County, the highest increase went to Big Beaver Falls Area School District which got a 5.26%. Ninety school districts received a 2% increase. Muhlenberg School District in Berks County received a 22.31% increase in state basic education funding in 2009.[157] The amount of increase each school district receives was set by Governor Edward G. Rendell and the Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak, as a part of the state budget proposal.[158]

Accountability Block Grants[edit]

Beginning in 2004-2005, the state launched the Accountability Block Grant school funding. This program has provided $1.5 billion to Pennsylvania’s school districts. The Accountability Block Grant program requires that its taxpayer dollars are focused on specific interventions that are most likely to increase student academic achievement. These interventions include: teacher training, all-day kindergarten, lower class size K-3rd grade, literacy and math coaching programs that provide teachers with individualized job-embedded professional development to improve their instruction, before or after school tutoring assistance to struggling students. For 2010-11, the district applied for and received $358,424 in addition to all other state and federal funding.[159]

Real estate taxes[edit]

Property tax rates in 2014-2015 were set by the Central Valley School Board at 49.9538 mills.[160] A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region.Property taxes, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, apply only to real estate - land and buildings. The property tax is not levied on cars, business inventory, or other personal property. Certain types of property are exempt from property taxes, including: places of worship, places of burial, private social clubs, charitable and educational institutions and government property. Additionally, service related, disabled US military veterans may seek an exemption from paying property taxes. Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75-85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections, which are around 15% of revenues for school districts.[161] When a public school district includes municipalities in two counties, each of which has different rates of property tax assessment, a state board equalizes the tax rates between the counties.[162] In 2010, miscalculations by the board were widespread in the Commonwealth and adversely impacted funding for many school districts.[163]

  • 2013-2014 - mills[164]
  • 2012-2013 - mills [165]
  • 2011-2012 - 47.6400 mills[166]
  • 2010-2011 - 46.8000 mills [167]
  • 2009-2010 - 46.8000 mills.[168]

The average yearly property tax paid by Beaver County residents amounts to about 3.49% of their yearly income. Beaver County ranked 375th out of the 3143 United States counties for property taxes as a percentage of median income.[169] According to a report prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the total real estate taxes collected by all school districts in Pennsylvania rose from $6,474,133,936 in 1999-00 to $10,438,463,356 in 2008-09 and to $11,153,412,490 in 2011.[170] Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).[171]

Act 1 Adjusted Index[edit]

The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not allowed to raise taxes above that index unless they allow voters to vote by referendum, or they seek an exception from the state Department of Education. The base index for the 2011-2012 school year is 1.4 percent, but the Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as property values and the personal income of district residents. Act 1 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.[172] In June 2011, the Pennsylvania General Assembly eliminated six of the ten exceptions to the Act 1 Index.[173] The following exceptions were maintained: 1) costs to pay interest and principal on indebtedness incurred prior to September 4, 2004 for Act 72 schools and prior to June 27, 2006 for non-Act 72 schools; 2) costs to pay interest and principal on electoral debt; 3) costs incurred in providing special education programs and services (beyond what is already paid by the State); and 4) costs due to increases of more than the Index in the school’s share of payments to PSERS (PA school employees pension fund) taking into account the state mandated PSERS contribution rate.[174][175]

The School District Adjusted Index for the School District 2009-10 through 2011-2012.[176]

  • 2009-10 - 5.4%, Base 4.1%
  • 2010-11 - 3.7%, Base 2.9%
  • 2011-12 - 1.8%, Base 1.4%
  • 2012-13 - 2.2%, Base 1.7% [177]
  • 2013-14 - 2.2%, Base 1.7% [178]
  • 2014-15 - 2.6%, Base 2.1% [179]
  • 2015-16 - 2.4%, Base 1.9%[180]

For the 2014-15 budget year, Central Valley School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. In 2014-15, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 21.4% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS).[181] For the school budget 2014-15, 316 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above its Act 1 Index limit. Another 181 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeding the Index limit. Districts may apply for multiple exceptions each year. For the pension costs exception, 163 school districts received approval to exceed the Index in full, while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 104 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Seven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for the grandfathered construction debts exception.[182]

For the 2013-14 budget year, Central Valley School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. In 2013-14, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 16.93% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS). For the school budget year 2013-14, 311 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index. Another 171 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the pension costs exception, 169 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 75 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Eleven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for grandfathered construction debts.[183]

For the 2012-13 budget year, Central Valley School Board applied for 2 exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index: pension costs and special education spending. For 2012-2013, 274 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 223 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the exception for pension costs, 194 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 129 districts received approval to exceed the tax limit. For the exception for pension costs, 194 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 129 districts received approval to exceed the tax limit.[184]

For the 2011-12 school year, the Central Valley School Board did not apply for an exception to exceed the Act 1 Index. Each year, the Central Valley School Board has the option of adopting either 1) a resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget in February. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index. A specific timeline for these decisions is published annually, by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.[185]

According to a state report, for the 2011-2012 school year budgets, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. Of the 250 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget, 231 adopted real estate tax rates that exceeded their index. Tax rate increases in the other 19 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget did not exceed the school district’s index. Of the districts who sought exceptions: 221 used the pension costs exemption and 171 sought a Special Education costs exemption. Only 1 school district sought an exemption for Nonacademic School Construction Project, while 1 sought an exception for Electoral debt for school construction.[186]

Property tax relief[edit]

In 2010, the Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief from gambling for the Central Valley School District was $172 per approved permanent primary residence. In the district, 4,872 property owners applied for the tax relief.[187] The relief was subtracted from the total annual school property tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres (40,000 m2) and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. In Beaver County, 64% of eligible property owners applied for property tax relief in 2009.[188] In Beaver County, the highest amount of tax relief in 2010, went to property owners in Aliquippa School District - $357 a year. The highest property tax relief in Pennsylvania went to the residents of Chester Upland School District of Delaware County who received $632 per approved homestead.[189] This was the third year they were the top recipient.

Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, consequently, individual with income much more than $35,000 may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate. This can be taken in addition to Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief.[190]

Extracurriculars[edit]

Central Valley School District offers a wide variety of clubs, activities and an extensive, costly sports program.[191] Eligibility for participation is determined by Central Valley School Board policies.[192][193] Eligibility for sports participation must be in compliance with standards set by the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association (PIAA). The District is noncompliant with state law, due to failing to post its Interscholastic Athletic Opportunities Disclosure Form on its website.

By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students residing in the district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs, including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the district's schools.[194]

Sports[edit]

Coaches receive compensation as outlined in the teachers' union contract. When athletic competition exceeds the regular season, additional compensation is paid.[195]

According to Pennsylvania’s Safety in Youth Sports Act, all sports coaches, paid and volunteer, are required to annually complete the Concussion Management Certification Training and present the certification before coaching.[196][197]

The District funds:

Varsity
Middle School Sports

According to PIAA directory July 2014 [198]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Search for Public School Districts – District Detail for Central Valley SD". National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "District Directory Information - Central Valley SD". US NCES. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  3. ^ Brian David (July 6, 2009). "Center-Monaca merger timeline". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  4. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data - Central Valley School District, 2010
  5. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, Pennsylvania Public School Code Governance 2010
  6. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, Pennsylvania School Code, 2013
  7. ^ Central Valley School Board (2014). "Superintendent Performance Evaluation 2013-2014" (PDF). 
  8. ^ Central Valley School Board, Central Valley School Board information, October 28, 2014
  9. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 11, 2014). "Guide to Pennsylvania Schools Statewide School District Ranking 2014". 
  10. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 11, 2014). "What makes up a district’s School Performance Profile score?". 
  11. ^ "Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2012". Pittsburgh Business Times. April 5, 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-10-23. 
  12. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 6, 2012). "Guide to Pennsylvania Schools Statewide ranking". Archived from the original on 2012-10-16. 
  13. ^ "Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2011". Pittsburgh Business Times. April 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. 
  14. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Overachiever rank — Local public district Information (April 4, 2014). http://www.bizjournals.com/pittsburgh/print-edition/2014/04/11/overachiever-rank-local-public-districts.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ "Overachiever statewide ranking". Pittsburgh Business Times. May 6, 2010. 
  16. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Overachivers Ranking Information, April 6, 2012
  17. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 4, 2014). "Honor Roll rank — Pittsburgh-region". 
  18. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Central Valley School District AYP Overview 2012". 
  19. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "About Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in Pennsylvania". 
  20. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania Public School District AYP History, 2011
  21. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania District AYP History 2003-2010, 2011
  22. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Valley School District Fast Facts 2013, October 4, 2013
  23. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Central Valley School District AYP Data Table 2012". 
  24. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Valley School District AYP Data Table 2011, September 29, 2011
  25. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 15, 2011). "New 4-year Cohort Graduation Rate Calculation Now Being Implemented". 
  26. ^ US News and World Report (2014). "Best High Schools". 
  27. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Care Data - Central Valley High School, 2010
  28. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Central Valley High School, September 29, 2011
  29. ^ The Rankings: Eleventh grade, Pittsburgh Business Times, April 4, 2014.
  30. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "High School Academic Performance Data 2013". 
  31. ^ Eleanor Chute and Mary Niederberger (December 11, 2013). "New assessment shows fuller picture of Pa. schools". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  32. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, (September 21, 2012). "Central Valley High School AYP Overview 2012,". 
  33. ^ US Department of Education (2003). "NCLB Parental Notices". 
  34. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "School Improvement Grant". 
  35. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Valley High School AYP Overview, September 29, 2011
  36. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Academic Standards". 
  37. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Assessment System". 
  38. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2012). "2011-2012 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  39. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "2010-2011 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  40. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "2009-2010 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  41. ^ Pittsburgh Post Gazette (October 15, 2012). "How is your school doing?". 
  42. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Valley High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2011, September 29, 2011
  43. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Valley High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2010, October 20, 2010
  44. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Central Valley High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  45. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "2010-2011 PSSA results in Science". 
  46. ^ The Pennsylvania Basic Education/Higher Education Science and Technology Partnership, Science in Motion annual report, 2012
  47. ^ Central Valley School Board, Central Valley High School Student handbook, 2011
  48. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education. "Pennsylvania Code §4.24 (a) High school graduation requirements". 
  49. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education, Proposed changes to Chapter 4, May 10, 2012
  50. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Keystone Exam Overview" (PDF). 
  51. ^ Megan Harris (September 12, 2013). "Pennsylvania changing high school graduation requirements". Tribune Live. 
  52. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 2011). "Pennsylvania Keystone Exams Overview". Archived from the original on 2012-03-17. 
  53. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education (2010). "Rules and Regulation Title 22 PA School Code CH. 4". 
  54. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, State Board of Education Finalizes Adoption of Pennsylvania Common Core State Academic Standards and High School Graduation Requirements, March 14, 2013
  55. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Keystone Exams". 
  56. ^ College Board (2013). "The 2013 SAT Report on College & Career Readiness". 
  57. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Public School SAT Scores 2011". Archived from the original on 2011-10-15. 
  58. ^ College Board (September 2011). "SAT Scores State By State - Pennsylvania". Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. 
  59. ^ "While U.S. SAT scores dip across the board, N.J. test-takers hold steady". September 2011. 
  60. ^ PDE, School Performance Profile - Academic Performance Data - Central Valley High School, December 2013
  61. ^ Central Valley School District Administration, Cyber Academy Newsletter, 2014
  62. ^ Cyber Academy Administration (2013). "Cyber Academy Pamphlet 2014" (PDF). 
  63. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Central Valley Middle School Fast Facts 2013". 
  64. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Central Valley Middle School, October 4, 2013
  65. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Care Data – Central Valley Middle School, 2010
  66. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Central Valley Middle School, September 29, 2011
  67. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Central Valley Middle School Academic Performance Data 2013,". 
  68. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, The Rankings: Eighth grade, April 4, 2014
  69. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Valley Middle School AYP Overview 2012, September 20, 2012
  70. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Valley Middle School AYP Overview 2011, September 29, 2011
  71. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "IU16-PSSA 95-96 Results by School". Retrieved May 11, 2014. 
  72. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "Standards Aligned Systems". 
  73. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Academic Standards". 
  74. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Academic Standards Mathematics". 
  75. ^ Pittsburgh Post Gazette (October 15, 2012). "How is your school doing?". 
  76. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Valley Middle School Academic Report Card 2011, September 29, 2011
  77. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Central Valley Middle School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  78. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Report (September 14, 2010). "2010 PSSAs: Reading, Math, Writing Results". 
  79. ^ The Times-Tribune (2012). "Grading Our Schools database, 2011-12 Science PSSA results". 
  80. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Report (August 2010). "Science PSSA 2010 by Schools". 
  81. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Todd Lane Elementary School Fast Facts 2013". 
  82. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, School Performance Profile, Elementary School Fast Facts, 2013
  83. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Care Data – Todd Lane Elementary School, 2010
  84. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Todd Lane Elementary School, September 29, 2011
  85. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Todd Lane Elementary School Academic Performance Data 2013". 
  86. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Rankings: 3rd, 4th and fifth, April 4, 2014
  87. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Todd Lane Elementary School AYP Overview, September 29, 2011
  88. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education (2003). "PSSA results 2003". 
  89. ^ New America Foundation (2003). "No Child Left Behind Overview". 
  90. ^ The Goals of No Child Left Behind (Jul 20, 2010). "The Goals of No Child Left Behind". 
  91. ^ Learning Point Associates (220). "Understanding the No Child Left Behind Act" (PDF). 
  92. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education (January 11, 2003). "Pennsylvania Academic Standards Science and Technology, Ecology and Environment". 
  93. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Todd Lane Elementary School Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  94. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Todd Lane Elementary School Report Card 2011, September 29, 2011
  95. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Todd Lane Elementary School Report Card 2010, October 20, 2010
  96. ^ Pittsburgh Post Gazette (October 15, 2012). "How is your school doing?". 
  97. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Center Grange Primary School Fast Facts 2013". 
  98. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, School Performance Profile, Elementary School Fast Facts, 2013
  99. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Care Data – Center Grange Primary School, 2010
  100. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Center Grange Primary School, September 29, 2011
  101. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education Services (2012). "Central Valley School District Special Education Data Report LEA Performance on State Performance Plan (SPP) Targets 2012". Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. 
  102. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education Services (2011). "Central Valley School District Special Education Data Report LEA Performance on State Performance Plan (SPP) Targets". Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. 
  103. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Pennsylvania Special Education Funding". 
  104. ^ Senator Patrick Browne (November 1, 2011). "Senate Education Committee Holds Hearing on Special Education Funding & Accountability". Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. 
  105. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Amy Morton, Executive Deputy Secretary (November 11, 2011). "Public Hearing: Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony". Archived from the original on 2012-04-22. 
  106. ^ Baruch Kintisch Education Law Center (November 11, 2011). "Public Hearing: Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-22. 
  107. ^ Amy Morton, Executive Deputy Secretary, Public Hearing: Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony, Pennsylvania Department of Education, November 11, 2011
  108. ^ US Department of Education, U.S. Department of Education Clarifies Schools' Obligation to Provide Equal Opportunity to Students with Disabilities to Participate in Extracurricular Athletics, January 25, 2013
  109. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2010). "Special Education Funding from Pennsylvania State_2010-2011". 
  110. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Education Funding 2011-2012 Fiscal Year". 
  111. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2012). "Investing in PA kids,". 
  112. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Special Education funding report by LEA, July 2014
  113. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2010). "Gifted Students as Percentage of Total Enrollment by School District/Charter School" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. 
  114. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education and Pennsylvania School Board. "CHAPTER 16. Special Education For Gifted Students". Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  115. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 26, 2010). "Special Education for Gifted Students Notice of Parental rights" (PDF). 
  116. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Investing in PA kids, April 2012
  117. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, June 27, 2006
  118. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "Investing in Pennsylvania Students 2014". 
  119. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2012). "Investing in Pennsylvania Students". 
  120. ^ Central Valley School District, Teacher unions contracts, 2011
  121. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "2009-10 Selected Data - 2009-10 Total Expenditures per ADM". 
  122. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "2012-13 Selected Data - 2012-13 Total Expenditures per ADM". 
  123. ^ United States Census Bureau (2009). "States Ranked According to Per Pupil Elementary-Secondary Public School System Finance Amounts: 2008-09" (PDF). 
  124. ^ US Census Bureau (2009). "Total and current expenditures per pupil in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary education, by function and state or jurisdiction: 2006-07". 
  125. ^ US Census Bureau (March 2003). "Public Education Finances 2000-01 Annual Survey of Local Government Finances" (PDF). 
  126. ^ US Census Bureau (2009). "Total and current expenditures per pupil in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary education, by function and state or jurisdiction: 2006-07". 
  127. ^ United States Census Bureau (2009). "States Ranked According to Per Pupil Elementary-Secondary Public School System Finance Amounts: 2008-09" (PDF). 
  128. ^ US Census Bureau (May 2013). "States Ranked According to Per Pupil Public Elementary-Secondary School System Finance Amounts: Fiscal Year 2011" (PDF). 
  129. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Investing in Pennsylvania Students, March 2012
  130. ^ Murphy, Jan., Pennsylvania's public schools boost reserves, CentreDaily Times, September 22, 2010
  131. ^ John Baer (December 9, 2013). "Pa. schools and $$ behind the curtain". Philadelphia Daily News. 
  132. ^ Melissa Daniels (June 1, 2013). "PA school districts look to cash stash to balance budgets". PA Independent. 
  133. ^ Jan Murphy (August 18, 2014). "School district reserves rise despite $1 billion cut in state aid". Pennlive.com. 
  134. ^ PDE, Invetsing in Pennsylvania Students 2013, July 2014
  135. ^ Sayre, Rob., Beaver County (PA) school districts to merge in July, The Morning Call, May 4, 2009
  136. ^ Brian David (February 25, 2010). "Central Valley leader who guided school merger set to retire". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  137. ^ Adam Smeltz and Richard Gazarik (December 28, 2013). "Distrust of government keeps school district consolidations at bay". Triblive. 
  138. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General (March 4, 2013). "Central Valley School District Beaver County, Pennsylvania Performance Audit Report". 
  139. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2012). "Pennsylvania Public School District Tuition Rates". 
  140. ^ Penn State Cooperative Extension (2010). "What are the Local Taxes in Pennsylvania?, Local Tax Reform Education Project,". Archived from the original on 2010-06-19. 
  141. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Revenue (April 2010). "Personal Income Taxation Guidelines". 
  142. ^ John Finnerty (2013). "PA teachers pensions". CNHI Harrisburg Bureau. 
  143. ^ Pennsylvania Representative Todd Stephens (January 23, 2014). "LEEF Funding Chart 2014". 
  144. ^ PDE (July 7, 2014). "Enacted Education Budget 2014-2015". 
  145. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014-15 Enacted Education Budget Fast Facts, July 14, 2014
  146. ^ Democrat Appropriations Committee, Report on Education funding by LEA, July 2, 2013
  147. ^ Sam Wood and Brian X. McCrone (January 29, 2014). "Montgomery County lawmaker proposes using Pa. horse racing funds for education". Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  148. ^ Pennsylvania Office of the Budget, 2013-14 State Budget Highlights, 2013
  149. ^ Senator Jake Corman (June 28, 2012). "Pennsylvania Education funding by Local School District" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-30. 
  150. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly Sen Jake Corman (June 29, 2012). "SB1466 of 2012 General Fund Appropriation". 
  151. ^ PA Senate Appropriations Committee (June 28, 2011). "School District 2011-12 Funding Report". 
  152. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2011). "Basic Education Funding". 
  153. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (June 30, 2011). "Basic Education Funding". 
  154. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (June 30, 2011). "Basic Education Funding 2011-2012 Fiscal Year". 
  155. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, District Allocations Report 2009, 2009-10
  156. ^ Pennsylvania House Appropriations Committee Education Budget information (June 30, 2010). "PA Basic Education Funding-Printout2 2010-2011" (PDF). Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  157. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 2009). "Funding Allocations by district". 
  158. ^ Pennsylvania Office of Budget (February 2009). "Governor's Budget Proposal 2009 Pennsylvania Department of Education Budget Proposal 2009". 
  159. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Accountability Block Grant report Grantee list 2010". 
  160. ^ PDE (October 2014). "Finances RE Tax Rates 2014-15". 
  161. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2004). "Act 511 Tax Report". 
  162. ^ State Tax Equalization Board (2011). "State Tax Equalization Board About US". Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. 
  163. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General office - Bureau of Audits (February 2011). "A Special Performance Audit of the Pennsylvania State Tax Equalization Boards" (PDF). 
  164. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "Real Estate Tax Rates by School District 2013-14 Real Estate Mills". 
  165. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Finances_Real Estate Tax Rates 2012-13, 2012
  166. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Real Estate Tax Rates by School District 2011-12 Real Estate Mills". 
  167. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,". 
  168. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Financial Elements Reports". 
  169. ^ Tax-rates.org., The 2013 Tax Resource County Property Taxes 2012, 2012
  170. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania School Finances - Summaries of Annual Financial Report Data 2010-11, 2011
  171. ^ New Census Data on Property Taxes on Homeowners, Tax Foundation, September 22, 2009.
  172. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "2010-11 Act 1 of 2006 Referendum Exception Guidelines". 
  173. ^ Kaitlynn Riely (August 4, 2011). "Law could restrict school construction projects". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  174. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, (June 29, 2011). "SB330 of 2011". 
  175. ^ Eric Boehm (July 1, 2011). "Property tax reform final piece of state budget". PA Independent. 
  176. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2010). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 School District Adjusted Index for 2006-2007 through 2010-2011". 
  177. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2012-2013 School District Adjusted Index, May 2011
  178. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2013-2014 School District Adjusted Index, September 2012
  179. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014-2015 School District Adjusted Index, September 2013
  180. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2015-2016 School District Adjusted Index, September 2014
  181. ^ Pennsylvania School Employees, Retirement System, PSERS Chart showing payment mandates 2007-2020, 2014
  182. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 30, 2014). "Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2014-2015". 
  183. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2013-2014, April 2013
  184. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2012-2013, March 30, 2012
  185. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 the Taxpayer Relief Act information". 
  186. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2011). "Report on Exceptions". 
  187. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 1, 2010). "SSAct1_Property Tax Relief Per HomeStead 2010". 
  188. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General Office, (February 23, 2010). "Special Report Pennsylvania Property Tax Relief,". 
  189. ^ Tax Relief per Homestead 2009, Pennsylvania Department of Education Report May 1, 2010
  190. ^ Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Education (2006). "Property Tax/Rent Rebate Program". 
  191. ^ Central Valley School Board (June 2013). "Central Valley School Board meeting minutes ATHLETIC/EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES Salaries and stipends" (PDF). 
  192. ^ Central Valley School Board, Central Valley School District interscholastic Athletics Policy 123, 2011
  193. ^ Central Valley School Board, Central Valley School District Co-Curricular Activities Policy 122, 2011
  194. ^ Pennsylvania Office of the Governor Press Release, (November 10, 2005). "Home-Schooled, Charter School Children Can Participate in School District Extracurricular Activities". 
  195. ^ Central Valley School Board, Central Valley School District Teacher Union Contract, 2014
  196. ^ PA General Assembly, (July 1, 2012). "Senate Bill 200 of Session 2011 Safety in Youth Sports Act". 
  197. ^ UMPC Sports Medicine (2014). "Managing Concussions in Student Athletes: The Safety in Youth Sports Act". 
  198. ^ Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletics Association (2014). "PIAA School Directory". 

External links[edit]