Charles Ellet, Jr.
|Charles Ellet, Jr.|
January 1, 1810|
Bucks County, Pennsylvania
|Died||June 21, 1862
Battle of Memphis
|Known for||Championing suspension bridges and other engineering endeavors in United States|
He worked as a rodman, measuring for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, making drawings. Benjamin Wright promoted him to Assistant Engineer of the Fifth Residency, but in 1830, he resigned to continue his studies in Paris.
Charles studied civil engineering at École nationale des Ponts et Chaussées in Paris, France, and in 1832 submitted proposals for a suspension bridge across the Potomac River. In 1842, he designed and built the first major wire-cable suspension bridge in the United States, spanning 358 feet over the Schuylkill River at Fairmount, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He designed the record-breaking Wheeling suspension bridge over the Ohio River at Wheeling, West Virginia in 1848, and a 770-foot suspension footbridge at Niagara Falls at the same time.
His other civil engineering accomplishments include supervising both the James River and Kanawha Canal in Virginia and the Schuylkill Navigation improvements in Pennsylvania (1846–47), and also constructing railroads in those states. Ellet developed theories for improving flood control and navigation of mid-western rivers. In 1849 he had advocated the use of reservoirs, built in the upper reaches of drainage basins, to retain water from the wet season that could be released during periods of low water to improve navigation; to some degree this also would tend to lessen the level of flooding during high flow. In 1850, the Secretary of War, conforming to an Act of Congress, directed Ellet to make surveys and reports on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers with a view to the preparation of adequate plans for flood prevention and navigation improvement. His report was very complete, and it exercised considerable influence on later engineering thought and navigation improvements.
According to A Naval History of the Civil War, Ellet was inspired by the accidental ramming of the SS Arctic by the SS Vesta, in 1854. In that disaster the Arctic was sunk by a vessel more than ten times smaller. He thought the accident demonstrated that steam power made it practical to re-introduce the naval ram as a weapon. When his proposal was rejected by the United States Navy he published a pamphlet Coast and Harbor Defenses, or the Substitution of Steam Battering Rams for Ships of War in late 1855.
Ellet published a Report of the Overflows of the Delta of the Mississippi River, which helped to reshape New Orlean's waterfront. George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature fourteen years later, but it was Ellet who first noted in writing that the artificial embankments created an overflowing delta. It would be decades later that his assertions were taken seriously and used in flood control decisions.
USS Ellet (DD-398), which was in service in 1939-46, was named in honor of Charles Ellet, Jr. and other members of his family.
- Eicher, John H.; Eicher, David J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press. p. 224. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Unrau, Harland D. "Historical Resource Study: Chesapeake & Ohio Canal" (PDF). [US Department of the Interior, National Park Service]. Retrieved 2013-05-02. p. 16
- Lewis, Gene D. (1968). Charles Ellet, Jr.: The Engineer as Individualist. University of Illinois Press. p. 20.
- Steinman, D. B. & S. R. Watson. 1957. Bridges and their builders. New York, Dover Publications. p.210
- Steinman & Watson, p. 211
- Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events of the year: 1862. New York: D. Appleton & Company. 1863. p. 412.
- Lewis, Gene D. (1968). Charles Ellet, Jr.: The Engineer as Individualist. University of Illinois Press. pp. 36, 92.
- Timeline: Development of US Inland Waterways System from Coosa-Alabama River Improvement Association, Inc.
- Federal Participation in Waterways Development
- Eicher, David J. (2001). The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. Simon & Schuster. p. 253. ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
- Kelman, Ari (2003). A River and Its City: The Nature of Landscape in New Orleans. University of California Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-520-23432-4.
- Fowler, William M. 1990. Under Two Flags: The American Navy in the Civil War. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-02859-3