He attended the Conservatoire in Paris where he studied under Olive Charlier Vaslin (1794–1889) and then Louis Norblin, and later became a cello professor. He played chamber music. He composed some pieces for the cello with piano accompaniment and also wrote "Méthode complete et pratique de Violoncelle." He won first prize in cello in 1842 when he was a student of Auguste Franchomme, and first prize in harmony in 1844 as a student of Fromental Halévy.
In later years he organized annual private concerts on Shrove Tuesday, and on this occasion in 1886 (March 9) the first performance of the musical divertissement, Carnival of the Animals by Saint-Saëns was given, in which Lebouc played the well-known cello solo, The Swan.