Choline chloride

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Choline chloride
Choline chloride
Names
IUPAC name
2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride OR (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
Identifiers
3D model (Jmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.596
E number E1001iii (additional chemicals)
UNII
Properties
C5H14ClNO
Molar mass 139.62 g·mol−1
Appearance White or deliquescent crystals
Melting point 302 °C (576 °F; 575 K) (decomposes)
very soluble (>650 g/l)[1]
Hazards
Safety data sheet External MSDS
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Choline chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. It has a choline cation with chloride anion. Alternative names are hepacholine, biocolina and lipotril.

Synthesis[edit]

In the laboratory choline can be prepared by methylation of dimethylethanolamine with methyl chloride.

Johnson Matthey Process Technology produce choline chloride from ethylene oxide, hydrochloric acid, and trimethylamine,[2] or from the pre-formed salt:[3]

Synthesis of choline chloride.png

Applications[edit]

Choline chloride is mass-produced and is an important additive in feed especially for chickens where it accelerates growth. It forms a deep eutectic solvent with urea, ethylene glycol, glycerol and many other compounds. Other commercial choline salts are choline hydroxide and choline bitartrate. In foodstuffs the compound is often present as phosphatidylcholine. It is also used as a clay control additive in fluids used for hydraulic fracturing.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations - Choline Chloride" (PDF). 
  2. ^ Johnson Matthey Process Technology - Choline chloride licensed process
  3. ^ "Choline chloride" (PDF). Screening Information Data Set (SIDS) for High Production Volume Chemicals. IPCS INCHEM. 
  4. ^ "What Chemicals Are Used". FracFocus. Retrieved 19 September 2014.