Nonrecursive ordinal

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In mathematics, particularly set theory, non-recursive ordinals are large countable ordinals greater than all the recursive ordinals, and therefore can not be expressed using ordinal collapsing functions.

The Church–Kleene ordinal and variants[edit]

The smallest non-recursive ordinal is the Church Kleene ordinal, , named after Alonzo Church and S. C. Kleene; its order type is the set of all recursive ordinals. Since the successor of a recursive ordinal is recursive, the Church–Kleene ordinal is a limit ordinal. It is also the smallest ordinal that is not hyperarithmetical, and the smallest admissible ordinal after ω (an ordinal α is called admissible if .). The -recursive subsets of ω are exactly the subsets of ω.[1]

The notation is in reference to ω
1
, the first uncountable ordinal, which is the set of all countable ordinals, analogously to how the Church-Kleene ordinal is the set of all recursive ordinals.

The relativized Church–Kleene ordinal is the supremum of the x-computable ordinals.[clarification needed]

, first defined by Stephen G. Simpson and dubbed the "Great Church–Kleene ordinal" is an extension of the Church–Kleene ordinal. This is the smallest limit of admissible ordinals, yet this ordinal is not admissible. Alternatively, his is the smallest α such that is a model of -comprehension.

Recursively ordinals[edit]

Recursively "x" ordinals, where "x" typically represents a large cardinal property, are kinds of nonrecursive ordinals.[2]

An ordinal is called recursively inaccessible if it is admissible and a limit of admissibles ( is the th admissible ordinal). Alternatively, it is recursively inaccessible if , an extension of Kripke–Platek set theory stating that each set is contained in a model of Kripke–Platek set theory; or, lastly, on the arithmetical side, such that is a model of -comprehension.

An ordinal is called recursively hyperinaccessible if it is recursively inaccessible and a limit of recursively inaccessibles, or where is the th recursively inaccessible. Like "hyper-inaccessible cardinal", different authors conflict on this terminology.

An ordinal is called recursively Mahlo if it is admissible and for any -recursive function there is an admissible such that (that is, is closed under ). Mirroring the Mahloness hierarchy, is recursively -Mahlo for an ordinal if it is admissible and for any -recursive function there is an admissible ordinal such that is closed under , and is recursively -Mahlo for all .[2]

An ordinal is called recursively weakly compact if it is -reflecting, or equivalently,[3] 2-admissible. These ordinals have strong recursive Mahloness properties, if α is -reflecting then is recursively -Mahlo.[2]

Weakenings of stable ordinals[edit]

An ordinal is stable if .[4] These are some of the largest named nonrecursive ordinals appearing in a model-theoretic context, for instance greater than for any computably axiomatizable theory .[5]Proposition 0.7. There are various weakenings of stable ordinals:[1]

  • A countable ordinal is called -stable iff .
    • The smallest -stable ordinal is much larger than the smallest recursively weakly compact ordinal: it has been shown that the smallest -stable ordinal is -reflecting for all finite .[3]
    • In general, a countable ordinal is called -stable iff .
  • A countable ordinal is called -stable iff , where is the smallest admissible ordinal . The smallest -stable ordinal is again much larger than the smallest -stable or the smallest -stable for any constant .
  • A countable ordinal is called -stable iff , where are the two smallest admissible ordinals . The smallest -stable ordinal is larger than the smallest -reflecting.
  • A countable ordinal is called inaccessibly-stable iff , where is the smallest recursively inaccessible ordinal . The smallest inaccessibly-stable ordinal is larger than the smallest -stable.
  • A countable ordinal is called Mahlo-stable iff , where is the smallest recursively Mahlo ordinal . The smallest Mahlo-stable ordinal is larger than the smallest inaccessibly-stable.
  • A countable ordinal is called doubly -stable iff . The smallest doubly -stable ordinal is larger than the smallest Mahlo-stable.

Larger nonrecursive ordinals[edit]

  • The least ordinal such that where is the smallest nonprojectible ordinal.
  • An ordinal is nonprojectible if is a limit of -stable ordinals, or; if the set is unbounded in .
  • The ordinal of ramified analysis, often written as . This is the smallest such that is a model of second-order comprehension, or , without the powerset axiom.
  • The least ordinal such that . This ordinal has been characterized by Toshiyasu Arai.[6]
  • The least ordinal such that .
  • The least stable ordinal.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b D. Madore, A Zoo of Ordinals (2017). Accessed September 2021.
  2. ^ a b c M. Rathjen, Proof Theory of Reflection (1993). Accessed 2022-12-04.
  3. ^ a b W. Richter, P. Aczel, Inductive Definitions and Reflecting Properties of Admissible Ordinals (1973, p.15). Accessed 2021 October 28.
  4. ^ J. Barwise, Admissible Sets and Structures (1975), Cambridge University Press, Perspectives in Logic.
  5. ^ W. Marek, K. Rasmussen, Spectrum of L in libraries (WorldCat catalog) (EuDML page), Państwowe Wydawn. Accessed 2022-12-01.
  6. ^ T. Arai, A Sneak Preview of Proof Theory of Ordinals (1997, p.17). Accessed 2021 October 28.
  • Church, Alonzo; Kleene, S. C. (1937), "Formal definitions in the theory of ordinal numbers.", Fundamenta Mathematicae, Warszawa, 28: 11–21, doi:10.4064/fm-28-1-11-21, JFM 63.0029.02
  • Church, Alonzo (1938), "The constructive second number class", Bull. Amer. Math. Soc., 44 (4): 224–232, doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1938-06720-1
  • Kleene, S. C. (1938), "On Notation for Ordinal Numbers", Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 3, No. 4, 3 (4): 150–155, doi:10.2307/2267778, JSTOR 2267778, S2CID 34314018
  • Rogers, Hartley (1987) [1967], The Theory of Recursive Functions and Effective Computability, First MIT press paperback edition, ISBN 978-0-262-68052-3
  • Simpson, Stephen G. (2009) [1999], Subsystems of Second-Order Arithmetic, Perspectives in Logic, vol. 2, Cambridge University Press, pp. 246, 267, 292–293, ISBN 978-0-521-88439-6
  • Richter, Wayne; Aczel, Peter (1974), Inductive Definitions and Reflecting Properties of Admissible Ordinals, pp. 312–313, 333, ISBN 0-7204-2276-0