British Rail Class 156
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|British Rail Class 156 Super Sprinter|
The interior of Abellio Greater Anglia refurbished Class 156
|In service||1987 - Current|
|Built at||Washwood Heath works|
|Replaced||First generation DMUs|
|Constructed||1987 – 1989|
|Number built||114 trainsets|
|Car body construction||Steel|
|Car length||23.025 m (75 ft 6.5 in)|
|Width||2.730 m (8 ft 11.5 in)|
|Height||3.805 m (12 ft 5.8 in)|
|Floor height||1.135 m (3 ft 8.7 in)|
|Doors||Single leaf sliding|
|Wheelbase||16.000 m (52 ft 5.9 in) (bogie centres)|
|Maximum speed||75 mph (121 km/h)|
|Prime mover(s)||1 × Cummins NT855-R5 Diesel (per car)|
|Power output||570 hp (430 kW)|
|Train heating||Hot air from single heat exchanger|
|Multiple working||Classes 14x, 15x, 17x|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) Standard gauge|
The British Rail Class 156 Super Sprinter is a diesel multiple-unit train (DMU). 114 of these units were built from 1987 to 1989 by Metro-Cammell (now owned by Alstom) at its Washwood Heath works in Birmingham. They were built to replace elderly first-generation "Heritage" DMUs and locomotive-hauled passenger trains.
The design of the Class 156 was more conservative than Metro Cammell's earlier Class 151 design. The bodyshell was made of steel instead of aluminium, and the cab design was deliberately similar to the BREL Class 150 to ease union acceptance.
The units were all built as two-car sets, numbered 156401-514. Each unit was formed of two driving motors, one of which contained a toilet. Individual carriages numbered as follows:
- 52401-52514 - Driving Motor Standard Lavatory (DMSL)
- 57401-57514 - Driving Motor Standard (DMS), containing an area for storing wheelchairs, bicycles, bulky luggage etc.
The vehicles are powered by 6-cylinder Cummins NT855-R5 diesel engines through Voith T211r hydraulic automatic transmissions and Gmeinder final drive units. They have a top speed of 75 mph (121 km/h).
Unlike the Class 150 units, the 156s have a single-leaf sliding door at either end of each coach. This reflected the expected longer journeys with fewer stops that the Class 156 was supposed to operate. As with the Class 150, all the doors are operable by passengers when released by the guard using one of two passenger door control panels; they are energised using a carriage key to turn a rotary switch situated on the cab bulkhead. Units operated by Abellio ScotRail have additionally been fitted with door-control panels near the centre sets of doors for the convenience of the guard.
The first 100 units were all ordered by the Provincial Sector of British Rail, and carried the sector's livery of blue and beige with light blue stripe. Twenty units, numbers 156401-419/422 based at Tyseley depot, were later repainted into Regional Railways Express livery after the rebranding of Provincial.
The last fourteen units, numbers 156501-514, were ordered by Strathclyde PTE, and carried an orange and black livery. This was later replaced by a carmine and cream livery, reminiscent of the 1950s livery carried by Mk.1 coaching stock.
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In the early 1990s, British Rail was looking to save costs on rural routes, and decided that operating two-car trains was too expensive. The company planned to convert a number of Class 156 units into single-car vehicles. In the event, the decision was taken to do this with the Class 155 units instead.
After the privatisation of British Rail, the Class 156 fleet was split between several franchises, which are described below.
Their initial introduction was controversial as they replaced locomotive-hauled stock (particularly Class 37 hauled) on longer routes. Various issues such as limited toilet facilities were cited as criticisms, but they proved to have much lower operating costs.
At privatisation the Scottish fleet passed to the National Express-owned ScotRail franchise, which used them until 2004 when the franchise was won by FirstGroup. Abellio ScotRail, as the franchise currently trades, operates the largest fleet of Class 156 units. They operate both on short-distance commuter routes and on services of up to five and a half hours, such as Glasgow to Fort William and Mallaig. Units nos. 156500-514, were operated by Strathclyde Partnership for Transport and originally wore SPT's "Carmine and Cream" livery, of which has since been replaced on all units with Scotrail's standardised Saltire livery. Despite their past liveries, the former SPT units were not confined to any specific route and thus worked in tandem with the rest of the 156 fleet on all routes. Generally, local and long-distance workings are interchangeable; however, only Radio Electronic Token Block (RETB)-fitted units can operate the West Highland Line.
As of 2017, they regularly operate on the following routes:
- Glasgow Central to Kilmarnock via Barrhead
- Glasgow Central to Stranraer / Carlisle via Kilmarnock with extensions to Newcastle via Hexham
- Glasgow Central to Edinburgh Waverley via Cambuslang, Bellshill and Shotts
- Glasgow Central to East Kilbride
- Glasgow Queen Street to Oban and Fort William / Mallaig
- Glasgow Queen Street to Anniesland via Maryhill
They also make occasional appearances on the following routes worked mostly by other units:
- Glasgow Queen Street to Lenzie / Stirling / Dunblane
- Glasgow Queen Street to Alloa via Stirling
- Glasgow Queen Street to Falkirk Grahamston via Cumbernauld
- Edinburgh Waverley to Kirkcaldy / Markinch and Glenrothes via the Fife Circle
- Edinburgh Waverley to Motherwell via Carstairs
- Edinburgh Waverley to Dunbar
In the event of severe disruption, Class 156s are known to make rare appearances to Perth and Dundee, where they operated regularly until 2005.
In September 2008 the Scottish Government's agency Transport Scotland announced that all ScotRail trains (including those of Strathclyde Partnership for Transport) would be repainted in a new livery of blue with white Saltire markings on the carriage ends. 156433 was the first 156 to be repainted in this livery and departed RailCare Springburn on 11 February 2009. All SPT units are now in Saltire livery. 156492 and 499 have also been repainted Saltire livery following accident damage in October 2012. There are also a number of trains in First ScotRail livery, also known as "Barbie"-liveried trains. These trains have had First logo removed when the franchise was transferred to Abellio, but the rest of the design is left unchanged for the time being. 156478 is currently receiving damage repairs after being flooded in torrential rain fall.
In October 2015 the Scottish Government's agency Transport Scotland announced that the first Class 156 ScotRail train to be fitted with effluent tanks, or Control Emission Toilet equipment, was about to return to service. Conversion of the rest of the fleet should be completed by December 2017.
In early 2005, one started to receive several former Central Trains Class 156 units, which were exchanged for Class 150 units. The newer Class 156 units are more suitable for several of the longer-distance routes, and provide extra passenger accommodation, and complement Class 153 units.
The units are used on the following local services:
- Bittern Line - Norwich to Sheringham via Cromer
- Wherry Lines - Norwich to Great Yarmouth/Lowestoft
- East Suffolk Line - Ipswich to Lowestoft/Felixstowe
- Sudbury Branch Line - Marks Tey to Sudbury
Greater Anglia currently has a fleet of nine 156s.
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Following privatisation, both First North Western and Arriva Trains Northern operated Class 156s on their respective routes. The majority of these workings were inherited by Northern Rail along with their 156s at the change of franchise. The vehicles inherited from the different companies have different interiors.
Six former Arriva Trains Northern Class 156 units were transferred from Yorkshire to the North West by Merseyrail, to replace some overcrowded Class 142 Pacer units in the Merseyside area, after more than 20 extra Class 158s were introduced in Yorkshire. The franchise's units, split between depots at Heaton (Newcastle) and Allerton (Liverpool), operate as 'common user' on a day-to-day basis, and are liable to appear working well away from their supposed home depot's routes (the opposite of what used to happen under British Rail, when units rarely strayed from their home depot's locality). Within the Northern region, Class 156s are concentrated in the North-West and also the North-East, but are uncommon now in Yorkshire and Humberside, where Class 158s and other unit types are used instead. Fourteen Class 156 units were fitted with GPS as a trial for Northern Rail, being tested on the remote Middlesbrough-Whitby branch.
Northern Rail introduced three new liveries. The first, carried by 156451, is mainly mauve, but with white bands. The second livery, as carried by 156425/460/464 is the inverse of the initial livery. The final livery, first applied to 156461, is similar to the second livery, but with the white replaced by blue.
Northern Rail's fleet of 42 Class 156s was inherited by Northern when the new franchise starts on 1 April 2016. An additional five Class 156 units are due to transfer to Northern from Abellio ScotRail in 2018 once the latter's Class 385 electric multiple units have entered service on routes that are currently being electrified.
- Birmingham to Nottingham via Derby or Leicester
- Birmingham to Hereford
- Birmingham to Shrewsbury and the Cambrian Line
- Nottingham to Skegness or Lincoln.
In an attempt at fleet standardisation, preparations were made during 2003 to exchange the entire Class 156 fleet for an equal number of ScotRail Class 158s, and unit 156402 was partially repainted in ScotRail colours in readiness. The transfer was ultimately cancelled, and reliverying of the bulk of the fleet into Central Trains' own green-and-yellow livery took place between 2003 and 2005.
At the end of the Central Trains franchise, the remaining eleven units were transferred to East Midlands Trains, who went on to repaint the fleet during 2008 and then carry out a £5m refurbishment programme from autumn 2010 onwards. The refurbishment, carried out at Neville Hill depot in Leeds, includes interior refurbishment work, improvements to driving cabs and installation of CCTV. These trains are now used on slower medium-distance services such as Nottingham/Derby to Matlock, Nottingham to Skegness, Leicester to Lincoln and Nottingham to Worksop. In May 2011, four additional units in use with Northern Rail were added to East Midlands Trains' fleet.
38 of the 114 Class 156 sets belong to leasing company Porterbrook, which announced in mid-2011 that they will be substantially refurbished at the time of their C6 overhauls. Seating layouts will be revised to provide priority seating and wheelchair spaces, and new universal toilets are to be installed, as also a passenger information system. Interior doors between vestibule and passenger saloon will be removed, and external door sounders fitted. The trains in question are as follows; 11 leased to East Midlands Trains, 9 to Abellio Greater Anglia and 18 to Northern.
|Class||Operator||No. Built||Year Built||Cars per Set||Unit nos.|
|Class 156||East Midlands Trains||15||1987–9||2||156401, 156403–156406, 156408, 156410–156411, 156413–156415, 156470, 156473,
|Abellio ScotRail||48||156430–156437, 156439, 156442, 156445–156447, 156449–156450, 156453, 156456–156458,
156462, 156465, 156467, 156474, 156476–156478, 156485, 156492-156496, 156499–156514
|Greater Anglia||9||156402, 156407, 156409, 156412, 156416–156419, 156422|
|Northern||42||156420–156421, 156423–156429, 156438, 156440–156441, 156443–156444, 156448,
156451–156452, 156454-156455, 156459–156461, 156463–156464, 156466, 156468–156469,
156471–156472, 156475, 156479–156484, 156486–156491
Some units have received names:
- 156409 - Cromer Pier Seaside Special (denamed)
- 156416 - Saint Edmund (denamed)
- 156418 - ESTA 1965-2015
- 156420 - La'al Ratty - Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway
- 156433 - The Kilmarnock Edition (denamed)
- 156438 - Timothy Hackworth
- 156440 - George Bradshaw
- 156441 - William Huskisson MP
- 156444 - Councillor Bill Cameron
- 156448 - Bram Stoker - Creator of Dracula
- 156449 - Saint Columba (denamed)
- 156454 - Whitby Endeavour (denamed)
- 156459 - Benny Rothman - The Manchester Rambler
- 156465 - Bonnie Prince Charlie (denamed)
- 156466 - Gracie Fields
- 156477 - Highland Festival (denamed)
- 156482 - Elizabeth Gaskell
- 156490 - Captain James Cook - Master Mariner
- Hornby produces a version of the 156 in OO although it does not have bidirectional lights
- Oovee Game Studios produced a Class 156 for the computer game Railworks 2
- Dapol make a N model with bidirectional lights
- Fox 1987, p. 45
- Fox & Hughes 1994, p. 33
- "Class 156". The Railway Centre. Archived from the original on 9 March 2005.
- Vehicle Diagram Book No. 220 for Diesel Multiple Unit Trains (Railcars) (PDF). Barrowmore MRG. Derby: British Railways Board. 1982. DP244, DP245.
- "The Northern Interim Franchise Agreement" (PDF). gov.uk. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- Fox & Hughes 1994, pp. 33–35
- "Mechanical And Electrical Coupling Index". Rail Safety and Standards Board. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- dysgraphyk (n.d.). "Class Origins". 156 Super-Sprinter website. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- The Railway Data File. Leicester: Blitz. 1999. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-85605-499-7.
- All Time Guide to Traction Classification - Part 3: Diesel Multiple Units. The Railway Centre.
- "Class 156". scot-rail.co.uk (enthusiast website). 20 February 2012.
- "livery". Transport Scotland.
- "Class 156 Relivery 09-10". scot-rail.co.uk (enthusiast website). 20 January 2011. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010.
- "New train refurbishment to rid Scotland's railways of effluent". Transport Scotland. 15 October 2015.
- dysgraphyk (n.d.). "The British Rail Years". 156 Super-Sprinter website. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- Gabbatt, Adam; Meikle, James (18 August 2010). "Suffolk rail crossing crash leaves man with life-threatening injuries". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- Knight, Steven, ed. (1997). A comprehensive guide to Britain's new railway. Peterborough: EMAP Apex. OCLC 154179551.
- dysgraphyk (n.d.). "White 156 402". 156 Super-Sprinter website. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
- dysgraphyk (n.d.). "Central Trains Livery". 156 Super-Sprinter website. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
- "East Midlands Trains launches first re-branded Class 156 train" (Press release). East Midlands Trains. 4 April 2008.
- "Rail passengers welcome first trains to undergo part of £5m makeover". Lincolnshire Echo. Lincoln. 29 September 2010.
- Miles, Tony (December 2010). "EMT refurbished Class 156 launched". Modern Railways. London. p. 88.
- Clinnick, Richard (10 August 2011). "Sprinters have a future after overhaul contract awarded". Rail. Peterborough. p. 24.
- "DMU FORMATIONS". AbRail. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- Fox, Peter (1987). Multiple Unit Pocket Book. British Railways Pocket Book No.2 (Summer/Autumn 1987 ed.). Platform 5 Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0906579740. OCLC 613347580.
- Fox, Peter; Hughes, Barry (1994). DMUs & Channel Tunnel Stock. British Railways Pocket Book No.3 (7th ed.). Platform 5. ISBN 9781872524597.
- Knight, Steve (13–26 July 1989). "Metro-Cammel's 100th Super-Sprinter". RAIL. No. 100. EMAP National Publications. pp. 26–27. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to British Rail Class 156.|
- Metro-Cammell class 156 Super-Sprinter - Information about current and past Class 156 operation, including technical details, liveries and accident reports.
- The story in pictures of 156502's visit to Holland
- British Photo Database - Class 156 Super-Sprinter