Claudius Xenophon

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Claudius Xenophon (or Xenephon) was a governor of Britannia Inferior, a province of Roman Britain around AD 223. He is named on two milestones with nearly identical texts, which can be dated to that year.[1] He succeeded Marius Valerianus, whose rule is attested in AD 222; and his governorship must have ended by AD 225, when another governor is mentioned in a fragmentary inscription, which only provides part of the name (Maximus). He is also mentioned in inscriptions in Vindolanda[2] and perhaps at Chesters.[3] [4] His father is thought to be a T. Cl(audius) T. f(ilius) Papiria Xenophon, who is mentioned in inscriptions and papyri in various procuratorships in Egypt and Dacia under Commodus.[5]


  1. ^ RIB 2299, a mile east of Vindolanda on the north side of the Stanegate, cur(ante) Cl(audio) X[e]noph(onte) leg(ato) Aug(usti) pr(o) [pr]a[e]t(ore) (translated in RIB as "under the charge of Claudius Xenophon, emperor's propraetorian legate"); 2306, near Milecastle 42 of Hadrian's Wall, at Cawfields, the same text, but with the name written out and spelt Xenephonte.
  2. ^ RIB 1706 sub Cl(audio) Xenepho[nte l]eg(ato) [Aug(usti)] n(ostri) pr(o) pr(aetore) Br(itanniae) In(ferioris) (translated in RIB as "under Claudius Xenephon, our emperor's propraetorian legate of Lower Britain")
  3. ^ RIB 1467 per Cl(audium) [Xenephontem] leg(atum) pr(o) pr(aetore). Birley, p. 342 n. 24, thinks the incomplete name could also belong to Tiberius Claudius Paulinus or to Claudius Xenophon's successor Maximus.
  4. ^ Salway, Peter (2001). A History of Roman Britain. Oxford Paperbacks. p. 186. 
  5. ^ Groag and Stein (1936) p. 256 n. 1052, p. 257 n. 1054; Birley (2005) 345-6.

Secondary Literature[edit]

  • A.R. Birley, The Roman Government of Britain (Oxford:OUP) 2005
  • E. Groag & R. Stein (edd.) Prosopographia Imperii Romani Saec.I.II.III II (Berlin:de Gruyter) 1936