Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium
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The Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) is an open, multidisciplinary, neutral, 501(c)(3) non-profit standards developing organization (SDO) that has been working through productive, consensus-based collaborative teams, since its formation in 1997, to develop global standards and innovations to streamline medical research and ensure a link with healthcare. The CDISC mission is "to develop and support global, platform-independent data standards that enable information system interoperability to improve medical research and related areas of healthcare". The CDISC Vision is "informing patient care and safety through higher quality medical research". The CDISC suite of standards supports medical research of any type from protocol through analysis and reporting of results. They have been shown to decrease resources needed by 60% overall and 70-90% in the start-up stages when they are implemented at the beginning of the research process).
They are harmonized through a model that is now not only a CDISC standard but also an HL7 standard on the path to becoming an ISO/CEN standard, thus giving the CDISC standards (harmonized together through BRIDG) international status and accreditation.
- Late 1997 - Started as a Volunteer group
- Summer 1998 - Invited to form DIA SIAC
- 1999 - SDS v1.0; ODM v0.8
- 2000 - SDS v1.1
- Feb 2000 - formed an Independent, non-profit organization
- Dec 2001 - Global participation
- 2001 - SDS v2.0; ODM v1.0
- 2002 - ODM v1.1; ADaM Models
- 2003 - LAB v1.0; SDTM v1/SDTM-IG v3.0;BRIDG Model Initiated; SEND 1.0
- 2004 - LAB v1.1; ODM v1.2; SDTM v3.1
- 2005 - Define.xml Implementation; Release (v1.0); SEND v.2; ODM v1.2.1; SDTM v1.1/SDTMIG v3.1.1; ODM mapped to HL7 RIM
- 2006 - BRIDG v1.0, v1.1; BRIDG posted as open source model
- 2007 - ODM v1.3; LAB & SDTM Aligned; BRIDG posted as open source model
- 2008 - BRIDG v2.0, v2.1, v2.2; CDASH v1.0; eSDI Document Published
- 2009 - SDTM v1.2/SDTMIG 3.1.2; ADam v2.1; Imaging CRFs; CDISC-IHE RFD and RPE
- 2010 - Protocol Representation Model;(PRM) v1.0; BRIDG v3.0; ODM v1.3.1; HHS-ONC/HITSP Interoperability Specification #158; CDISC-IHE RPE
- 2011 - CDASH v1.1; SEND v3.0; Study Design XML v1.0
- 2013 - Define-XML Version 2.0, SDTM v1.4/SDTMIG v3.2
- 2014 - SHARE R1
- 2016 - DatasetXML, Therapeutic Areas
Overview of CDISC standards
- Dataset.XML (DataSet-XML)
- Enables communication of study results as well as regulatory submission to FDA (pilot since 2014).
- Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM)
- Recommended for FDA regulatory submissions since 2004.
- The SDTM Implementation Guide (SDTM-IG) gives a standardized, predefined collection of domains for clinical data submission, each of which is based on the structure and metadata defined by the SDTM.
- Standard for Exchange of Non-clinical Data (SEND)
- The SEND Implementation Guide (SEND-IG) provides predefined domains and examples of non-clinical (animal) data based on the structure and metadata define by the SDTM.
- Analysis Data Model (ADaM)
- Defines standards for analysis datasets derived from SDTM domains.
- Operational Data Model (ODM)
- The highlights of ODM: includes audit trail, utilizes XML technology, machine- and human- readable, all information are independent from databases, storing of ODM is independent from hard- and software.
- Laboratory Data Model (LAB)
- The Lab standard is used for exchange of laboratory data between labs and CROs
- Case Report Tabulation Data Definition Specification (CRT-DDS)
- Also referred to as "define.xml", a machine readable version of the regulatory submission "define.pdf".
- Clinical Data Acquisition Standards Harmonization (CDASH)
- Defines a minimal data collection set for sixteen safety SDTM Domains, harmonizing element names, definitions and metadata. The objective is to establish a standardized data collection baseline across all submissions.
- CDISC Terminology
- Defines controlled terminology for SDTM and CDASH, provides extensible lists of controlled terms designed to harmonize data collected across submissions.
Individual CDISC standards
Operational Data Model (ODM)
The CDISC Operational Data Model (ODM) is designed to facilitate the regulatory-compliant acquisition, archive and interchange of metadata and data for clinical research studies. ODM is a vendor neutral, platform independent format for interchange and archive of clinical study data. The model includes the clinical data along with its associated metadata, administrative data, reference data and audit information. ODM was first introduced in 1999, and the latest version, 1.3.2, was released in 2012. ODM extensions have been developed to create a number of additional CDISC standards, including Define-XML, Dataset-XML, SDM-XML, and CTR-XML and future planned standard Protocol-XML.
ODM is an XML based standard and it is an XML schema that provides number of constructs for modeling electronic Case Report Forms (CRFs). ODM is often combined with Study Data Model standard to more fully model trial arms or trial activities. ODM is also used in sending forms data from a clinical trial system to an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system.
Define-XML supports the interchange of dataset metadata for clinical research applications in a machine-readable format. An important use case for Define-XML is to support the submission of clinical trials data in CDISC SDTM, SEND or ADaM format to regulatory authorities. The key metadata components to support submissions are:
- Dataset definitions
- Dataset variable definitions
- Controlled Terminology definitions
- Value list definitions
- Links to supporting documents
- Computational method definitions
- Comments definitions
Define-XML can also be used to describe proprietary, non-CDISC dataset structures. The Define-XML model is implemented using extensions to the CDISC Operational Data Model (ODM) XML schema. The current version is 2.0 published on the CDISC web site.
CDISC BRIDG model is a unifying model of the domain of clinical research and research studies. It defines basic elements such as investigator, subject, study, intervention. It is used to keep all standards consistent. It was first introduced in 2006 with version 2 released in 2008. It can be obtained as UML model as well as .OWL format.
CDISC SHARE (Shared Health and Clinical Research Electronic Library) is a metadata repository that supports the development, governance, publishing, and consumption of CDISC standards in human and machine-readable formats. SHARE helps users find, understand, and use rich metadata (i.e., research concepts, data elements and attributes, relationship among data elements, properties in relationship, and controlled terminologies) relevant to clinical studies more efficiently and consistently. With all these information in a single repository, SHARE will improve integration and traceability of clinical data end-to-end, from protocol through analysis. SHARE will provide a collaborative standards development environment that will improve quality, integration, and consistency across CDISC standards.
CDISC registered solutions providers
CDISC maintains a list of solutions providers, subject matter experts and consultants deemed to have sufficient knowledge and experience implementing the various CDISC standards.
ODM and EDC integration
Electronic Data Capture (EDC) systems can be certified as compliant with the Operational Data Model (ODM) by CDISC. There are two main types of integration, ODM Import and ODM Export.
Full import allows importing of ODM-formatted clinical data (MetaData and Data). MetaData only import allows only the importing of MetaData. This is useful for setting up the EDC system to capture data. Basically allows third party software to define the forms, variables etc. used in the EDC system. This provides an EDC vendor-neutral system for defining a study.
The EDC system will generate ODM data files for further processing.
- Electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD)
- Electronic Data Capture
- Clinical data acquisition
- Clinical Data Management System (CDMS)
- Data model
- Data warehouse
- Health Level 7
- Health Informatics Service Architecture (HISA)
- SNOMED CT
- Clinical trial
- Vikash Jain and Sandra Minjoe (2014), "A Road Map to Successful CDISC ADaM Submission to FDA: Guidelines, Best Practices & Case Studies", PharmaSUG 2014 - Paper DS15
- Rebecca Daniels Kush (2003), eClinical Trials: Planning and Implementation, CenterWatch / Thomson Healthcare, ISBN 1-930624-28-X
- Kevin Lee (2014), "CDISC Electronic Submission", PharmaSUG 2014 – DS14
- A J de Montjoie (2009), 'Introducing the CDISC Standards: New Efficiencies for Medical Research', CDISC Publications
- Henry Winsor (2014), Good versus Better SDTM – Why "Good Enough" May No Longer Be Good Enough When It Comes to SDTM, PharmaSUG 2014 - Paper IB06
- "Andrea Vadakin: CDISC standards and innovations, 2012" (PDF).
- Huser, V; Sastry, C; Breymaier, M; Idriss, A; Cimino, J. J. (2015). "Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM)". Journal of Biomedical Informatics 57: 88–99. doi:10.1016/j.jbi.2015.06.023. PMC 4714951. PMID 26188274.