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Common reference string model

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In cryptography, the common reference string (CRS) model captures the assumption that a trusted setup in which all involved parties get access to the same string crs taken from some distribution D exists. Schemes proven secure in the CRS model are secure given that the setup was performed correctly. The common reference string model is a generalization of the common random string model, in which D is the uniform distribution of bit strings. As stated in,[1] the CRS model is equivalent to the reference string model [2] and the public parameters model.[3]

The CRS model has applications in the study of non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs and universal composability.


  1. ^ Ran Canetti and Marc Fischlin; Universally Composable Commitments; Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2001/055 (link)
  2. ^ Marc Fischlin, Roger Fischlin: Efficient Non-malleable Commitment Schemes. CRYPTO 2000: 413-431 (link)
  3. ^ Ivan Damgård: Efficient Concurrent Zero-Knowledge in the Auxiliary String Model. EUROCRYPT 2000: 418-430 (link)