Conservation management system
A conservation management system (CMS) is a procedure for maintaining a species or habitat in a particular state. It is a means whereby humankind secures wildlife in a favourable condition for contemplation, education or research, in perpetuity. It is an important topic in cultural ecology, where conservation management counterbalances the unchecked exploitative management of natural resources. Conservation management systems are vital for turning sustainable development strategies into successful operations.
Conservation management has historically adopted ideals deriving from 3 discursive approaches: the classic approach, populist approach, and neoliberal approach. All three approaches have differing ideas about the nexus of conservation and development and their potential interactions.
- The Classic Approach understands local people to be a threat environmental conservation and therefore people occupying landed intended for conservation have historically and presently been evicted from their land.
- The Populist Approach understands that conservation requires the participation and the empowerment of local people in order to reach both social and environmental aims.
- The Neoliberal Approach sees the need for value to be placed on biodiversity in order for conservation to be incorporated in the economic systems and be successful as a tool of economic development.
National Parks are heavily managed conservations areas. The approach adopted by a conservation authority will influence the management of a Park and dictate how the park authorities view the role of the park and the relationship visitors may have with it. An example of a park adopting a populist approach is the Rouge National Urban Park located in Canada’s largest city Toronto. Though controlled by the Government of Canada through Parks Canada, the Rouge National Urban Park encourages the community to access the park to learn, play and live. The complexity of the Park being in a large metropolitan city has meant that Parks Canada has incorporated the surrounding communities into the planning, implementation, and management of the park. 
- Conservation management system (United Kingdom)
- Conservation ethic
- Conservation biology
- Environmental management
- "Developing conservation management strategies: Consulting". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- Brown, K. (2002). Innovations for Conservation and Development. The Geographical Journal,168(1), 6-17. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/stable/3451218
- Conservation Management System Consortium, an international partnership of conservation organisations from the UK and the Netherlands