Dishwasher

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A dishwasher containing clean dishes
An open dishwasher

A dishwasher is a mechanical device for cleaning dishware and cutlery. Unlike manual dishwashing, which relies largely on physical scrubbing to remove soiling, the mechanical dishwasher cleans by spraying hot water, typically between 45 and 75 °C (110 and 170 °F), at the dishes, with lower temperatures used for delicate items.[1]

A mix of water and dishwasher detergent is pumped to one or more rotating spray arms, which blast the dishes with the cleaning mixture. Once the wash is finished, the water is drained, more hot water is pumped in and a rinse cycle begins. After the rinse cycle finishes and the water is drained, the dishes are dried using one of several drying methods. Typically a rinse aid is used to eliminate water spots for streak-free dishes and glassware resulting from hard water or other reasons.[2]

In addition to domestic units, industrial dishwashers are available for use in commercial establishments such as hotels and restaurants, where a large number of dishes must be cleaned. Washing is conducted with temperatures of 65–71 °C (149–160 °F) and sanitation is achieved by either the use of a booster heater that will provide a 82 °C (180 °F) "final rinse" temperature or through the use of a chemical sanitizer.

Use[edit]

Users operate dishwashers by scraping food from dirty dishes, loading them into the dishwasher racks, adding dishwasher detergent, turning on the device, then removing the clean dishes.

Dishwasher use starts with installation as an appliance.[3] Most home users fix their dishwashers in one place, such as under a countertop.[3]

The user scrapes dishes clean, such as by pushing uneaten food from a plate into a waste container as food waste.[4] From the early 2010s, manufacturers have designed consumer dishwashers for use without pre-rinsing or pre-washing, so after scraping the user places dishes into the dishwasher.[4] Dishwashers are designed to hold different dishes in different places.[5] For the most common installed two-rack consumer style of dishwasher, the user loads cups, bowls, and small dishes onto the top rack.[5] Eating utensils go in the bottom rack into a container, with pointed ends down for safety.[5] Some dishwashers have a third rack for utensils. Heavier dishes go on the bottom rack, with large pots facing downward toward the spray nozzle.[5] After the dishwasher is loaded, the user puts dishwasher detergent into the machine.[6] Contemporary dishwashers use sensors to determine how much washing is required, and when they finish, will provide clean dishes.[7]

Dishwashers and the detergents used in dishwashers are not designed for use with some materials.[5] The washing cycle's heat and chemicals can harm kitchen knives and non-stick surface pans.[5] Detergents have their own usage restrictions, including not being safe for cleaning various materials like wood or certain metals.[6]

History[edit]

A hand-powered dishwasher and an early electric dishwasher both from about 1917.

The first mechanical dishwashing device was registered in 1850 in the United States by Joel Houghton for a hand-powered wood device. This device was made of wood and was cranked by hand while water sprayed onto the dishes. This device was both slow and unreliable. Another patent was granted to L.A. Alexander in 1865 that was similar to the first but featured a hand-cranked rack system. Neither device was practical or widely accepted.

Subsequently another hand-powered dishwasher was invented in 1887 by Josephine Cochrane with the help of George Butters in Josephine's tool shed in Shelbyville, Tennessee and was unveiled at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, Illinois under the name of Lavadora but was changed to Lavaplatos as another machine invented in 1858 already held that name. This machine is what everyone now knows as the washing machine.[8] Cochrane's inspiration was her frustration at the damage to her good china that occurred when her servants handled it during cleaning.[9]

Advertisement in an 1896 issue of McClure's for The Faultless Quaker Dishwasher.

Europe's first domestic dishwasher with an electric motor was invented and manufactured by Miele in 1929.[10][11]

In the United Kingdom, William Howard Livens invented a small, non-electric dishwasher suitable for domestic use in 1924. It was the first dishwasher that incorporated most of the design elements that are featured in the models of today;[12] it included a front door for loading, a wire rack to hold the dirty crockery and a rotating sprayer. Drying elements were even added to his design in 1940. It was the first machine suitable for domestic use, and it came at a time when permanent plumbing and running water in the house was becoming increasingly common.[13][14]

Despite this, Liven's design did not become a commercial success, and dishwashers were only successfully sold as domestic utilities in the postwar boom of the 1950s, albeit only to the wealthy. Initially dishwashers were sold as standalone or portable devices, but with the development of the wall-to-wall countertop and standardized height cabinets, dishwashers began to be marketed with standardized sizes and shapes, integrated underneath the kitchen countertop as a modular unit with other kitchen appliances.

By the 1970s dishwashers had become commonplace in domestic residences in North America and Western Europe. By 2012, over 75 percent of homes in the United States and Germany had dishwashers.[15]

In the 2010s manufactures routinely offered various new energy conservation features in dishwashers.[7] One feature was use of "soil sensors", which was a computerized tool in the dishwasher which measured food particles coming from dishes.[7] When the dishwasher had cleaned the dishes to the point of not releasing more food particles, then the soil sensor would report the dishes being cleaned.[7] The sensor operated with another innovation of using variable washing time.[7] If dishes were especially dirty, then the dishwasher would run for a longer time than if the sensor detected them to be clean. In this way, the dishwasher saves energy and water by only being in operation for as long as needed.[7]

Design[edit]

Size and capacity[edit]

North American counter-top dishwasher

Dishwashers that are installed into standard kitchen cabinets have a standard width and depth of 60 cm (Europe) or 24 inches (US), and most dishwashers must be installed into a hole a minimum of 86 cm (Europe) or 34 inches (US) tall. Portable dishwashers exist in 45 and 60 cm (Europe) or 18 and 24 inch (US) widths, with casters and attached countertops. Dishwashers may come in standard or tall tub designs; standard tub dishwashers have a service kickplate beneath the dishwasher door that allows for simpler maintenance and installation, but tall tub dishwashers have approximately 20% more capacity and better sound dampening from having a continuous front door.

The international standard for the capacity of a dishwasher is expressed as standard place settings. Commercial dishwashers are rated as plates per hour. The rating is based on standard sized plates of the same size. The same can be said for commercial glass washers, as they are based on standard glasses, normally pint glasses.

Layout[edit]

Present-day machines feature a drop-down front panel door, allowing access to the interior, which usually contains two or sometimes three pull-out racks; racks can also be referred to as "baskets". In older U.S. models from the 1950s, the entire tub rolled out when the machine latch was opened, and loading/removing washable items was from the top, with the user reaching deep into the compartment for some items. Youngstown Kitchens, which manufactured entire kitchen cabinets and sinks, offered a tub-style dishwasher, which was coupled to a conventional kitchen sink as one unit.

Today, "dish drawer" models mimic this style, while the half-depth design eliminates the inconvenience of the long reach that was necessary with older full-depth models. "Cutlery baskets" are also common. A drawer dishwasher, first introduced by Fisher & Paykel in 1997, is a variant of the dishwasher in which the baskets slide out with the door in the same manner as a drawer filing cabinet, with each drawer in a double-drawer model being able to operate independently of the other.

The inside of a dishwasher in the North American market is either stainless steel or plastic. Stainless steel tubs resist hard water, provide better sound damping, and preserve heat to dry dishes more quickly. They also come at a premium price. Older models used baked enamel on steel and are prone to chipping and erosion; chips in the baked enamel finish must be cleaned of all dirt and corrosion then patched with a special compound or even a good quality two-part epoxy. All European-made dishwashers feature a stainless steel interior as standard, even on low end models. The same is true for a built-in water softener.

Washing elements[edit]

The flutes (or valve meters) of the dishwasher are prevalent in American models (with some appearing in European and Asian models influenced by US design) due to the higher pressure of the American water system (which averages at 90 torrs/min, as opposed to the 65 torrs/min pressure in other countries). The flutes help drain the excess water, preventing entropy within the system due to higher pressures at a lower volume. This is a removable fixture, as some areas require a higher or lower discharge based on their water system.

European dishwashers almost universally use two or three spray arms which are fed from the bottom and back wall of the dishwasher leaving both racks unimpeded and also such models tend to use inline water heaters, removing the need for exposed elements in the base of the machine that can melt plastic items near to them. Many North American dishwashers tend to use more basic and old fashioned water distribution and exposed elements in the base of the dishwasher. Some North American machines use a large cone or similar structure in the bottom dish rack to prevent placement of dishes in the center of the rack. The dishwasher directs water from the bottom of the dishwasher up through this structure to the upper wash arm to spray water on the top dish rack. Some dishwashers, including many models from Whirlpool and Kitchenaid, use a tube attached to the top rack that connects to a water source at the back of the dishwasher, which allows full use of the bottom rack. Late-model Frigidaire dishwashers shoot a jet of water from the top of the washer down into the upper wash arm, again allowing full use of the bottom rack (but requiring that a small funnel on the top rack be kept clear).

Features[edit]

Clear model of a running dishwasher

Mid-to-higher end North American dishwashers often come with hard food disposal units, which behave like miniature garbage (waste) disposal units that eliminate large pieces of food waste from the wash water. One manufacturer that is known for omitting hard food disposals is Bosch, a German brand; however, Bosch does so in order to reduce noise. If the larger items of food waste are removed before placing in the dishwasher, pre-rinsing is not necessary even without integrated waste disposal units.

Many new dishwashers feature microprocessor-controlled, sensor-assisted wash cycles that adjust the wash duration to the quantity of dirty dishes (sensed by changes in water temperature) or the amount of dirt in the rinse water (sensed chemically/optically). This can save water and energy if the user runs a partial load. In such dishwashers the electromechanical rotary switch often used to control the washing cycle is replaced by a microprocessor but most sensors and valves are still required to be present. However, pressure switches (some dishwashers use a pressure switch and flow meter) are not required in most microprocessor controlled dishwashers as they use the motor and sometimes a rotational position sensor to sense the resistance of water; when it senses there is no cavitation it knows it has the optimal amount of water. A bimetal switch or wax motor opens the detergent door during the wash cycle.

Some dishwashers include a child-lockout feature to prevent accidental starting or stopping of the wash cycle by children. A child lock can sometimes be included to prevent young children opening the door during a wash cycle. This prevents accidents with hot water and strong detergents used during the wash cycle.

Process[edit]

Drying[edit]

The heat inside the dishwasher dries the contents after the final hot rinse; the final rinse adds a small amount of rinse aid to the hot water, as this improves drying significantly. Plastic and non-stick items may not dry properly compared to china and glass, which hold the heat better. Some dishwashers incorporate a fan to improve drying. Older dishwashers with a visible heating element (at the bottom of the wash cabinet, below the bottom basket) may use the heating element to improve drying; however, this uses more energy.

North American dishwashers tend to use heat-assisted drying via an exposed element. European machines and some high end North American machines use passive methods for drying – a stainless steel interior helps this process and some models use heat exchange technology between the inner and outer skin of the machine to cool the walls of the interior and speed up drying. Most dishwashers feature a drying sensor and as such, a dish-washing cycle is always considered complete when a drying indicator, usually in the form of an illuminated "end" light, or in more modern models on a digital display or audible sound, exhibits to the operator that the washing and drying cycle is now over.

Governmental agencies often recommend air-drying dishes by either disabling or stopping the drying cycle to save energy.[16]

Dishwasher detergent[edit]

A detergent tablet

Dishwashers are designed to work using specially formulated dishwasher detergent. Over time, many regions have banned the use of phosphates in detergent because wastewater from dishwashers was polluting water and harming ecosystems.[17]

In some regions depending on water hardness a dishwasher might function better with the use of a dishwasher salt.

Effects on crockery[edit]

Glassware[edit]

Glassware washed by dishwashing machines can develop a white haze on the surface over time. This may be caused by any or all of the below processes, only one of which is reversible:

Silicate filming, etching, and accelerated crack corrosion
This film starts as an iridescence or "oil-film" effect on glassware, and progresses into a "milky" or "cloudy" appearance (which is not a deposit) that cannot be polished off or removed like limescale. It is formed because the detergent is strongly alkaline (basic) and glass dissolves slowly in alkaline aqueous solution. It becomes less soluble in the presence of silicates in the water (added as anti-metal-corrosion agents in the dishwasher detergent). Since the cloudy appearance is due to nonuniform glass dissolution, it is (somewhat paradoxically) less marked if dissolution is higher, i.e. if a silicate-free detergent is used; also, in certain cases, the etching will primarily be seen in areas that have microscopic surface cracks as a result of the items' manufacturing.[18][19] Limitation of this undesirable reaction is possible by controlling water hardness, detergent load and temperature. The type of glass is an important factor in determining if this effect is a problem. Some dishwashers can reduce this etching effect by automatically dispensing the correct amount of detergent throughout the wash cycle based on the level of water hardness programmed.
Devitrification
Components found in dishwasher detergents can chemically scour the glass, causing tiny crystals, which can precipitate further crystal growth that can turn entire glasses cloudy[20]

Unsuitable items[edit]

Lead crystal should not be cleaned in a dishwasher as the corrosive effect of dishwasher detergent is high on such types of glass – that is, it will quickly go 'cloudy'. In addition, the lead in the crystal glass can be converted into a soluble form, which could endanger the health of subsequent users.[21] Some items can be damaged if washed in a dishwasher because of the effects of the chemicals and hot water. Aluminium items will discolor. Saucepan manufacturers often recommend handwashing due to the harsh effects of the chemicals on the pan coatings. Valuable items, such as antiques or hand-painted items, should only be washed manually as they may be dulled or damaged, and detergents will gradually fade the glazing and print. Sterling silver and pewter will oxidize and discolour from the heat. Furthermore, pewter has a low melting point and may warp in some dishwashers.

Items soiled by wax, cigarette ash or anything which might contaminate the rest of the wash load (such as poisons or mineral oils) should be washed by hand. Objects contaminated by solvents may explode in a dishwasher. Glued items, such as some cutlery handles or wooden cutting boards, may be melted or softened if put in a dishwasher, especially on a hot wash cycle when temperatures can reach 75 °C (167 °F); these high temperatures can also damage plastic items which are designated as only being washed by hand. Some plastic items can be distorted or melted if placed in the bottom rack too close to an exposed heating element; therefore, most dishwasher-safe plastic items recommend placing in the top rack only (many newer dishwashers have a concealed heating element away from the bottom rack entirely). Squeezing plastic items into small spaces may cause the plastic to distort in shape.

Dishwashers should only be used to wash normal household items, such as plates, cutlery, cups, mugs, kitchenware etc. Items such as paintbrushes, tools, furnace filters etc. should not be put into a dishwasher as this will cause the subsequent washes to become contaminated and may cause damage to the appliance.

Knives and other cooking tools that are made of carbon steel, semi-stainless steels like D2 or specialized, highly hardened cutlery steels like ZDP189 should also not be placed into a dishwasher, as these steels are not corrosion resistant or far less corrosion resistant than the austenitic stainless steels used for cookware. Also, very sharp edges can become dulled or damaged from colliding with other items and/or thermal stress from the washing cycles, and can pose an injury hazard if another person unloading the dishwasher does not expect such items in the dishwasher. Ceramic edges are very brittle and can take damage from collision with dishwasher parts or other contents.

Cast iron cookware is normally seasoned with oil or grease and heat, which causes the oil or grease to be absorbed into the pores of the cookware, thereby giving a smooth relatively non-stick cooking surface. Such cookware should not be washed in a dishwasher as the combination of alkali based detergent and hot water will strip off this cooking surface, requiring reseasoning before the item may once again be used.

Efficiency[edit]

In the European Union, the energy consumption of a dishwasher for a standard usage is shown on a European Union energy label. In the United States, the energy consumption of a dishwasher is defined using the energy factor.

Most consumer dishwashers use a 75 °C (167 °F) thermostat in the sanitizing process. During the final rinse cycle, the heating element and wash pump are turned on, and the cycle timer (electronic or electromechanical) is stopped until the thermostat is tripped. At this point, the cycle timer resumes and will generally trigger a drain cycle within a few timer increments.

Most consumer dishwashers use 75 °C (167 °F) rather than 83 °C (181 °F) for reasons of burn risk, energy and water consumption, total cycle time, and possible damage to plastic items placed inside the dishwasher. With new advances in detergents, lower water temperatures (50–55 °C / 122–131 °F) are needed to prevent premature decay of the enzymes used to eat the grease and other build-ups on the dishes.

In the US, residential dishwashers can be certified to a NSF International testing protocol which confirms the cleaning and sanitation performance of the unit.[22]

A 2009 study showed that the microwave and the dishwasher were both effective ways to clean domestic sponges.[23]

Adoption[edit]

Commercial use[edit]

A commercial dishwasher
A Hobart commercial dishwasher

Large heavy-duty dishwashers are available for use in commercial establishments (e.g. hotels, restaurants) where a large number of dishes must be cleaned.

Unlike a residential dishwasher, a commercial dishwasher does not utilize a drying cycle (commercial drying is achieved by heated ware meeting open air once the wash/rinse/sanitation cycles have been completed) and thus are significantly faster than their residential counterparts. Washing is conducted with 65–71 °C / 150–160 °F temperatures and sanitation is achieved by either the use of a booster heater that will provide the machine 82 °C / 180 °F "final rinse" temperature or through the use of a chemical sanitizer. This distinction labels the machines as either "high-temp" or "low-temp".

Some commercial dishwashers work similarly to a commercial car wash, with a pulley system that pulls the rack through a small chamber (known widely as a "rack conveyor" systems). Single-rack washers require an operator to push the rack into the washer, close the doors, start the cycle, and then open the doors to pull out the cleaned rack, possibly through a second opening into an unloading area.

In the UK, the British Standards Institution set standards for dishwashers. In the US, NSF International (an independent not-for-profit organization) sets the standards for wash and rinse time along with minimum water temperature for chemical or hot water sanitizing methods.[24] There are many types of commercial dishwashers including under counter, single tank, conveyor, flight type, and carousel machines.

Commercial dishwashers often have significantly different plumbing and operations than a home unit, in that there are often separate spray arms for washing and rinsing/sanitizing. The wash water is heated with an in-tank electric heat element and mixed with a cleaning solution, and is used repeatedly from one load to the next. The wash tank usually has a large strainer basket to collect food debris, and the strainer may not be emptied until the end of the day's kitchen operations.

Water used for rinsing and sanitizing is generally delivered directly through building water supply, and is not reusable. The used rinse water falls into the wash tank reservoir, which dilutes some of the used wash water and causes a small amount to drain out through an overflow tube. The system may first rinse with pure water only, and then sanitize with an additive solution that is left on the dishes as they leave the washer to dry.

Additional soap is periodically added to the main wash water tank, from either large soap concentrate tanks or dissolved from a large solid soap block, to maintain wash water cleaning effectiveness.

Environmental impact[edit]

Comparing the efficiency of automatic dishwashers and hand-washing of dishes is difficult because hand-washing techniques vary drastically by individual. According to a peer-reviewed study in 2003, hand washing and drying of an amount of dishes equivalent to a fully loaded automatic dishwasher (no cookware or bakeware) could use between 20 and 300 litres (5.3 and 79.3 US gal) of water and between 0.1 and 8 kWh of energy, while the numbers for energy-efficient automatic dishwashers were 15–22 litres (4.0–5.8 US gal) and 1 to 2 kWh, respectively. The study concluded that fully loaded dishwashers use less energy, water, and detergent than the average European hand-washer.[25][26] For the automatic dishwasher results, the dishes were not rinsed before being loaded. The study does not address costs associated with the manufacture and disposal of dishwashers, the cost of possible accelerated wear of dishes from the chemical harshness of dishwasher detergent, the comparison for cleaning cookware, or the value of labour saved; hand washers needed between 65 and 106 minutes. Several points of criticism on this study have been raised.[27] For example, kilowatt hours of electricity were compared against energy used for heating hot water without taking into account possible inefficiencies. Also, inefficient human washers were compared against optimal usage of a fully loaded dishwasher without manual pre-rinsing that can take up to 100 litres (26 US gal) of water.[28]

Most dishwasher detergent contains complex phosphates, as they have several properties that aid in effective cleaning. However, the same chemicals have been removed from laundry detergents in many countries as a result of concerns raised about the increase in algal blooms in waterways caused by increasing phosphate levels (see eutrophication). Seventeen US states have partial or full bans on the use of phosphates in dish detergent,[29] and two US states (Maryland and New York) ban phosphates in commercial dishwashing. Detergent companies claimed it is not cost effective to make separate batches of detergent for the states with phosphate bans (although detergents are typically formulated for local markets), and so most have voluntarily removed phosphates from all dishwasher detergents.[30]

In addition, rinse aids have contained nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates. These have been banned in the European Union by EU Directive 76/769/EEC.

Alternative uses[edit]

Dishwashers can be used to cook certain foods, in particular salmon.[31][32][33][34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Özçevik, Ö; Brebbia, C. A.; Şener, S. M. (2015-05-19). Sustainable Development and Planning VII. WIT Press. p. 794. ISBN 9781845649241. 
  2. ^ Zoller, Uri (2008-10-29). Handbook of Detergents, Part E: Applications. CRC Press. pp. 60–62. ISBN 9781574447576. 
  3. ^ a b Consumer Reports (29 July 2015). "Dishwasher Buying Guide (Interactive Video)". YouTube. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Farrell, Mary H.J. (24 August 2016). "Don't Bother Pre-Rinsing Your Dishes Before Putting Them in the Dishwasher". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f DiClerico, Daniel (10 June 2016). "How to Load a Dishwasher". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Dishwasher detergents Overview". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Janeway, Kimberly (9 December 2016). "5 Things to Know When Replacing a Dishwasher". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  8. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washing_machine
  9. ^ http://lemelson.mit.edu/resources/josephine-cochrane
  10. ^ Nick Kochan (25 November 1996). The World's Greatest Brands. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 111–. ISBN 978-1-349-14114-2. 
  11. ^ Tina Gant (30 September 2003). International Directory of Company Histories. St. James Press. ISBN 978-1-55862-486-3. 
  12. ^ < "Made in the UK: The life-changing everyday innovations which put British genius on the map". 
  13. ^ "Archive Gallery: Kitchens of the Incredible 1950s Future". Popular Science. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  14. ^ William Howard Livens (1924-10-23). "Improvements in apparatus for washing household crockery and the like". FR579765. UK Intellectual Property Office. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  15. ^ "The History of the Dishwasher". Yellow Advertiser. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  16. ^ "Top 10 Tips for Renters : ENERGY STAR". Energystar.gov. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  17. ^ Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Cernic, Beatriz Gamberini; do Couto, Leandro Giovanni Domingos; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes (February 2017). "Synthetic detergents: 100 years of history". Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.006. 
  18. ^ "Lehigh-Unilever study sheds light on mystery of cloudy wineglasses". Scienceblog.com. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  19. ^ Sharma, Anju; Jain, Himanshu; Carnali, Joseph O.; Lugo, Guillermo Manuel (2003). "Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Corrosion Behavior of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glassware". Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 86 (10): 1669–1676. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.2003.tb03538.x. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2014-03-03. 
  21. ^ "''Lead Contamination In Our Environment''". Yale.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  22. ^ "NSF Consumer Information: Residential Appliances and Other Products for the Home". Nsf.org. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  23. ^ "Hygiene in the home kitchen: Changes in behaviour and impact of key microbiological hazard control measures". Food Control. 35: 392–400. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.07.026. 
  24. ^ "NSF article on dishwashers". Nsf.org. Archived from the original on 2012-05-22. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  25. ^ Stamminger, Rainer (2003). "A European Comparison of Cleaning Dishes by Hand". Proceedings of EEDAL conference. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 
  26. ^ Stamminger, Rainer (May–June 2004). "Is a machine more efficient than the hand?" (PDF). Home Energy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-01. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 
  27. ^ Dishwashing: man vs. machine. Yoram Gat, Pro Bono Statistics Weblog (2008)
  28. ^ Dishwashing and Water Conservation: An Opportunity for Environmental Education. Journal of Extension, Volume 41, Number 1 (2003).
  29. ^ "Md. Dish Soap Bill Might Help Clean Bay". Washingtonpost.com. 2007-03-03. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  30. ^ "Phosphate Free Dishwasher Detergent Leaves Dishes Dirty". GE Appliances. Retrieved 2013-11-30. 
  31. ^ Gever Tulley and Julie Spiegler (2010-02-23). "How to Cook Something in the Dishwasher". Lifehacker.com. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  32. ^ Alter, Lloyd (2004-11-22). "Dishwasher cooking- The Recipes". TreeHugger. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  33. ^ "How to Cook Lasagna in Your Dishwasher: 13 steps". wikiHow. 2010-01-14. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  34. ^ "Use Dishwasher for cooking beef!". Streetdirectory.com. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 

External links[edit]

  1. ^ "Dishwasher Review | Best Dishwasher Brand | Dishwasher Zone". Dishwasher Zone. Retrieved 2017-07-26.