Kumasi

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For the administrative subdivision of Iran, see Kumasi Rural District.
"Coomassie" redirects here. For the dye, see Coomassie Brilliant Blue.
Kumasi
City
Top: Aerial view of Central Business District (CBD) in Kumasi and private housing estates in Kumasi; Bottom left: Kumasi Sports Stadium, Bottom: Ghana Commercial Bank (GBC) Building in Kumasi, Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) Museum in Kumasi and luxury real estates in Kumasi.
Top: Aerial view of Central Business District (CBD) in Kumasi and private housing estates in Kumasi; Bottom left: Kumasi Sports Stadium, Bottom: Ghana Commercial Bank (GBC) Building in Kumasi, Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) Museum in Kumasi and luxury real estates in Kumasi.
Official seal of Kumasi
Seal
Kumasi is located in Ashanti
Kumasi
Kumasi
Location of Kumasi in Ashanti
Geographic coordinate system of the City of Kumasi
Coordinates: 6°40′N 1°37′W / 6.667°N 1.617°W / 6.667; -1.617Coordinates: 6°40′N 1°37′W / 6.667°N 1.617°W / 6.667; -1.617
Sovereign State  Ghana
Administrative division  Ashanti
Metropolis Kumasi Metropolitan
Founded 1680
Government
 • Type Mayor–council
 • mayor vacant
Area[1]
 • Total 254 km2 (98 sq mi)
Elevation 250 m (820 ft)
Population (2013 est.)[2]
 • Total 2,069,350
 • Density 8,100/km2 (21,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC
Area code(s) 032
Website kma.gov.gh

Kumasi (historically spelled Comassie or Coomassie and correctly spelled Kumase in Twi)[3] is a city in Ashanti Region, and is among the largest metropolitan areas in Ghana. Kumasi is near Lake Bosomtwe, in a rain forest region, and is the commercial, industrial and cultural capital of Asanteman. Kumasi is approximately 500 kilometres (300 mi) north of the Equator and 200 kilometres (100 mi) north of the Gulf of Guinea. Kumasi is alternatively known as "The Garden City" because of its many beautiful species of flowers and plants. It is also called Oseikrom, (Osei Tutu's town).

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

There is evidence that the area around Kumasi has been kept cleared since the Neolithic age and that the first human settlement was at Lake Bosomtwe.

Asanteman[edit]

Kings Way Road in Kumasi, 1925.

The city rose to prominence in 1695 when it became capital of the Ashanti Confederacy due to the activities of its ruler Osei Tutu. The ruler of Kumasi, known as the Asantehene, also served as ruler of the Confederacy. With their 1701 victory over Denkyira the Asante confederacy became the primary state among the Ashantis.[4] Parts of the city, including the then royal residence, were destroyed by British troops in the Third Anglo-Ashanti War of 1874.

Lady Mary Alice Hodgson, the first English lady to visit Ashanti, wrote "The Siege of Kumasi" an account of the siege of the fort by the nationals of Ashanti Confederation Ashantiland and of the subsequent march to the coast.[5] (She was the daughter of Hon. W. A. G. Young, C.M.G., former governor of the Gold Coast, and the wife of Sir Frederick Mitchell Hodgson, K.C.M.G., the governor of the Gold Coast in 1900.[5])

In 1926, following the return of the Ashanti king, Prempeh I after a 30-year exile Kumasi was restored as the ceremonial control over the Ashanti sub-states and the full role of king was restored by the colonial administration in 1935. The city holds an important place in the history of the Ashanti people, as legend claims that it was here Okomfo Anokye received the golden stool, an embodiment of the soul of the Ashanti nation Ashanti.

Climate[edit]

Kumasi features a tropical wet and dry climate, with relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year. Kumasi averages around 1400 mm (55") of rain per year.

The city almost features two rainy seasons: a longer season from March through July and a shorter rainy season from September to November.

The months of February through to November is one long wet season, with a relative lull in precipitation in August. Similar to the rest of West Africa, Kumasi experiences the harmattan during the "low sun" months. Lasting from December to February, the harmattan is the primary source of the city's dry season.

Climate data for Kumasi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.7
(98.1)
37.2
(99)
37.8
(100)
36.1
(97)
35.0
(95)
32.8
(91)
31.1
(88)
30.0
(86)
31.7
(89.1)
32.2
(90)
32.8
(91)
33.3
(91.9)
37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 31.9
(89.4)
33.5
(92.3)
32.9
(91.2)
32.3
(90.1)
31.3
(88.3)
29.5
(85.1)
28.0
(82.4)
27.7
(81.9)
28.7
(83.7)
30.1
(86.2)
31.2
(88.2)
30.7
(87.3)
30.7
(87.3)
Average low °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
22.0
(71.6)
22.3
(72.1)
22.4
(72.3)
22.2
(72)
21.6
(70.9)
21.2
(70.2)
21.0
(69.8)
21.1
(70)
21.5
(70.7)
21.7
(71.1)
20.8
(69.4)
21.5
(70.7)
Record low °C (°F) 11.7
(53.1)
13.3
(55.9)
17.8
(64)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66)
18.9
(66)
17.2
(63)
16.1
(61)
18.3
(64.9)
15.6
(60.1)
13.9
(57)
10.6
(51.1)
10.6
(51.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15.1
(0.594)
66.3
(2.61)
137.0
(5.394)
129.3
(5.091)
174.4
(6.866)
214.3
(8.437)
157.5
(6.201)
89.9
(3.539)
165.2
(6.504)
153.3
(6.035)
74.3
(2.925)
25.8
(1.016)
1,402.4
(55.213)
Average precipitation days 2 5 9 10 14 17 14 12 17 17 8 3 128
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.6 187.2 205.4 204.0 204.7 146.3 101.2 77.0 106.2 161.4 193.8 178.0 1,951.8
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization,[6] Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial (extremes)[7]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)[8][a]

Landmarks[edit]

Manhyia Palace and Museum in Kumasi

Features of the city include Fort Kumasi (built by in 1896 to replace an Asante fort and now a museum) and the Kumasi Hat Museum.

Royal Asante attractions include the Kumasi National Cultural Centre (including the Prempeh II Jubilee Museum with Asante regalia with a reproduction of the golden stool), the Okomfo Anokye Sword, the Asantehene's Palace (built in 1972), and the Manhyia Palace, dating from 1925, now a museum.

Kumasi is home to a zoo. St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kumasi. There is the large Kumasi Central Market and Tafo Kumasi.

Economy[edit]

The main occupations in Kumasi are professional such as services and manufacturing.

Mining and exports[edit]

Due to large gold deposits that have been mined in the area, Kumasi is the wealthiest city in Ashantiland. The city's major produce are gold bars, hardwood and cocoa.

Manufacturing[edit]

Kumasi has 50% of the timber industry of Ashantiland, and the Kaasai Industrial Area plays an important role in the local industry. The Guinness Ghana Breweries is based in Kumasi.

Energy[edit]

Solar panels are prevalent in Kumasi and Ashanti. Solar energy technology is a major energy source and contributor of electricity generation in Ashanti.

Commerce[edit]

Panoramic view of Kumasi and the biggest shopping street in Ashantiland, 2008.

Much of the shopping and trading activity in the city takes place at Kumasi's shopping streets, in and around Kejetia Market and Adum. These two areas – Kejetia and Adum – have a common boundary.

Education and science[edit]

Pearson House of Prempeh College, and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) main entrance.

Senior high schools and colleges[edit]

There are notable senior high schools like Prempeh College which was founded in Kumasi by the King Osei Tutu Agyeman Prempeh II in 1949 and Opoku Ware School, named after the Asanteman King Opoku Ware I and founded in 1952. The city has a polytechnic to boost its education called Kumasi Polytechnic. Former president John Kufuor attended and graduated from the Prempeh College. Also well known schools are Kumasi High school which boasts of Alumni such as renowned economist the late Hon. Kwadwo Baah Wiredu, Lawyer and MP of Bantama Hon. Kokofu and owner of Joy industries. Other prominent high schools are Yaa Asantewaa, St. Louis Girls High School, T.I Amass and Kumasi Anglican School.

Universities[edit]

The Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (formerly the Kumasi College of Technology). Former Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan attended and graduated from this institution.

The University of Education Winneba has a campus called College of Technology in Tanoso, a suburb of Kumasi. Kumasi is the location of many private universities including Garden City University College, Ghana Baptist University College, Christian Service University College, Christ Apostolic University College, University College of Management Studies, Kumasi Campus among others.

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

Kumasi is served by the Kumasi Airport. As of May 2014 at least four airlines offered regularly scheduled flights to Accra, Takoradi and Sunyani. Airlines servicing the airport included Africa World Airlines, Antrak Air, Royal Fly-GH and Starbow Airlines. The airport has undergone construction to allow for night operations.[9]

Bus and Taxicab[edit]

Public transport in the city is provided by transit buses, a mix of privately owned mini-buses known as tro tros, taxicabs and buses. Tro tros are usually converted mini-buses that run regular, well-known routes. Some taxis also run regular routes, which cost more but provide for a more comfortable ride.

In 2002, the city introduced the metro bus services a rapid transit system for public road transport in Kumasi (MetroMass).[10] This was to reduce congestion on roads and to make a larger and more organised bus routine system in the city.[11]

Rail[edit]

Kumasi is served by the railway lines to Sekondi-Takoradi and Accra. The train service has been suspended for several years because of damaged track, bridges and locomotives. Currently, no train is running from and to Kumasi due to the collapse of the railway corporation some years back. A$6 billion project to upgrade the railways was due to get underway in 2011.[12]

Port[edit]

As of 2011, construction of the Boankra Inland Port, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) away, has come to a halt.[13]

Sports[edit]

The local football (soccer) team, the Kumasi Asante Kotoko has won several national and continental trophies and awards, and serves as a rival to the Accra based Hearts of Oak. Their Kumasi Sports Stadium, also known as Baba Yara Stadium, was built in 1959, renovated in 1978, and again in 2007 with a seating capacity of 40,000.[14] It is also the home of King Faisal Football Club, a premier division side. There is the Royal Golf Club which has the Asantehene as president. Former Leeds United and Ghana national football team footballer Tony Yeboah was born in Kumasi. Professional wrestler Kofi Kingston was born in Kumasi.

Healthcare[edit]

The Kumasi has the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital to support medical training at the university, the West End Hospital, several other private hospitals, public clinics and small hospitals.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Kumasi is twinned with:

Country City County / District / Region / State Date
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast AbidjanLogo.png Abidjan AbidjanLogo.svg Lagunes 2004
Treichville
United States US Flag of Atlanta.svg Atlanta Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia 2010
Netherlands Netherlands Almere vlag.svg Almere Flevolandflag.svg Flevoland 2001
United States US Charlotteflag.png Charlotte Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina 1996
United States US Flag of Columbus, Ohio.svg Columbus Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio 2008
Canada Canada Flag of Kitchener, Ontario.svg Kitchener Flag of Ontario.svg Ontario 2010
United States US Flag of Newark, New Jersey.jpg Newark Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey 1999
South Africa South Africa
Tshwane
Gauteng 2010
United States US Winston-Salem flag.gif Winston-Salem Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina 2001
* Numbers in date column list the year of twinning.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Demographic Characteristics". Ghanadistricts.com. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
  2. ^ "World Gazetteer online". World-gazetteer.com. 
  3. ^ "COOMASSIE AND MAGDALA: The Story of Two British Campaigns in Africa - Naval & Military Press". Retrieved 28 October 2016. 
  4. ^ McCaskie, T. C. "Denkyira in the Making of Asante" in The Journal of African History vol. 48 (2007) no. 1, p. 1
  5. ^ a b Morgan, Henry James Types of Canadian women and of women who are or have been connected with Canada : (Toronto, 1903) [1]
  6. ^ "World Weather Information Service–Kumasi". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  7. ^ "Ghana–Kumasi". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  8. ^ "Station 65442: Kumasi". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  9. ^ "President Respects All Tribes – NDC". Ghana Broadcasting Corporation. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  10. ^ "Ashanti Region". Metro Mass Transit Ltd. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  11. ^ "Bus Rapid Transit System". Metro Mass Transit Ltd. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  12. ^ "Ghana, China signs railway contract". Ghana News Link. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  13. ^ "Baonkra Inland Port Project, stuck?". Kapital News. Kapital Radio 97.1 FM. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  14. ^ Kumasi Sports Stadium Ready. TheStatesManOnline.com.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Station ID for Kumasi is 65442 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

External links[edit]