Coupling from the past
Among Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, coupling from the past is a method for sampling from the stationary distribution of a Markov chain. Contrary to many MCMC algorithms, coupling from the past gives in principle a perfect sample from the stationary distribution. It was invented by James Propp and David Wilson in 1996.
The basic idea
Consider a finite state irreducible aperiodic Markov chain with state space and (unique) stationary distribution ( is a probability vector). Suppose that we come up with a probability distribution on the set of maps with the property that for every fixed , its image is distributed according to the transition probability of from state . An example of such a probability distribution is the one where is independent from whenever , but it is often worthwhile to consider other distributions. Now let for be independent samples from .
Suppose that is chosen randomly according to and is independent from the sequence . (We do not worry for now where this is coming from.) Then is also distributed according to , because is -stationary and our assumption on the law of . Define
Then it follows by induction that is also distributed according to for every . Now here is the main point. It may happen that for some the image of the map is a single element of . In other words, for each . Therefore, we do not need to have access to in order to compute . The algorithm then involves finding some such that is a singleton, and outputting the element of that singleton. The design of a good distribution for which the task of finding such an and computing is not too costly is not always obvious, but has been accomplished successfully in several important instances.
The monotone case
There is a special class of Markov chains in which there are particularly good choices for and a tool for determining if . (Here denotes cardinality.) Suppose that is a partially ordered set with order , which has a unique minimal element and a unique maximal element ; that is, every satisfies . Also, suppose that may be chosen to be supported on the set of monotone maps . Then it is easy to see that if and only if , since is monotone. Thus, checking this becomes rather easy. The algorithm can proceed by choosing for some constant , sampling the maps , and outputting if . If the algorithm proceeds by doubling and repeating as necessary until an output is obtained. (But the algorithm does not resample the maps which were already sampled; it uses the previously sampled maps when needed.)
- Propp, James Gary; Wilson, David Bruce (1996), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Random Structures and Algorithms (Atlanta, GA, 1995), pp. 223–252, MR 1611693
- Propp, James; Wilson, David (1998), "Coupling from the past: a user's guide", Microsurveys in discrete probability (Princeton, NJ, 1997), DIMACS Ser. Discrete Math. Theoret. Comput. Sci., 41, Providence, R.I.: American Mathematical Society, pp. 181–192, doi:10.1090/dimacs/041/09, ISBN 9780821808276, MR 1630414, S2CID 2781385