November 1, 1815|
|Died||June 16, 1878
|Alma mater||University of Georgia
University of Pennsylvania
|Known for||Anesthesia induced by ether|
Life and work
He received his M.D. degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1839. After observing the same physiological effects with diethyl ether ("ether") that Humphry Davy had described for nitrous oxide in 1800, Long used ether for the first time on March 30, 1842 to remove a tumor from the neck of a patient, James M. Venable, in Jefferson, Georgia. Long subsequently removed a second tumor from Venable and used ether as an anesthetic in amputations and childbirth. The results of these trials were published in 1849 in The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. An original copy of this publication is held in the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Crawford Long was a member of the Demosthenian Literary Society while a student at the University of Georgia and shared a room with Alexander Stephens, Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. Long was a cousin of the western legend Doc Holliday, and may have operated on Doc's cleft lip.
Long died in Athens, Georgia in 1878. The Emory-University-operated Crawford W. Long Hospital in downtown Atlanta, Georgia was named in his honor in 1931 and retained that name for 78 years. In 2009 the hospital was renamed "Emory University Hospital Midtown". The Crawford W. Long Museum in downtown Jefferson, Georgia has been in operation since 1957. Crawford Long Middle School, in Atlanta, Georgia, was also named in his honor. A statue of Crawford Long stands in the crypt of the United States Capitol as one of the two designated monuments to represent the state of Georgia in the National Statuary Hall Collection (the other is his college roommate, Alexander Stephens).
On October 16, 1846, unaware of Long's prior work with ether during surgery, William T. G. Morton administered ether anesthesia before a medical audience at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Although Long had informed several surgical colleagues who had similarly administered ether in their practices, Morton is generally credited with the first public demonstration of ether anesthesia. In 1854, Long requested William Crosby Dawson, a U.S. Senator, to present his claims of ether anesthesia discovery to the attention of Congress.
He died of a stroke on June 16, 1878 shortly after helping to deliver a baby. Throughout his professional career, Long was strongly convinced of his calling to serve humanity. He said that his profession was a "ministry from God" and that "his highest ambition was to do good and leave the world better by his labors."
A monument in honor of Dr. Crawford W. Long was unveiled at Jefferson, Ga. April 21, 1910.
The University of Pennsylvania memorialized Crawford W. Long in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 1912, with a bulletin and bronze medallion.
Long was honored in the "Famous American Series" of postage stamps in 1940.
In 1931, Atlanta's 85-bed Davis-Fischer Sanatorium was renamed Crawford W. Long Memorial Hospital. The current facility is administered by Emory University and since 2009 has been known as Emory University Hospital Midtown. References to Crawford W. Long Memorial Hospital are retained on exterior monuments.
Long's childhood home was added to the National Register of Historic Places (National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Georgia) on December 6, 1977. It is located on Crawford W. Long St. in Danielsville, Georgia. Its coordinates are: 34°07′34″N 83°13′28″W / 34.126111°N 83.224444°W / 34.126111; -83.224444
On August 14, 1920, the Georgia state legislature proposed a constitutional amendment to create a new county from the western portions of Liberty County, to be named after Long. The amendment creating Long County was ratified on November 2, 1920. The county seat is Ludowici.
- Charles Thomas Jackson – claimed to be the first to discover the anesthetic properties of diethyl ether
- William T. G. Morton - dentist who demonstrated the use of ether in surgery prior to the time Long's activities were generally known
- Hanaoka Seishū – first physician to use general anesthesia
- Madison County Courthouse (Georgia), site of a statue of Long
- Madden, M. Leslie (May 14, 2004). "Crawford Long (1815-1878)". New Georgia Encylcopedia. University of Georgia Press. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "Crawford W. Long". Doctors' Day. Southern Medical Association. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "Crawford Long Birthsite historical marker". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Hellmann, Paul T. (May 13, 2013). Historical Gazetteer of the United States. Routledge. p. 227. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Long, CW (1849). "An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anaesthetic in Surgical Operations". Southern Medical and Surgical Journal 5: 705–713.
- "The first patient to whom Crawford Williamson Long administered s[ulphuric] ether c.1854-1910". National Library of Medicine.
- Nakayama, Don K. (2016). "Surgical History: Crawford Long, Alfred Blalock, Louis Wright, and Georgia's Surgical Heritage". American Surgeon 82 (2): 90. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Goodwin, Sarah (February 16, 2009). "Hospital name change enhances mission" (Press release). Emory University. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "Crawford W. Long". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Northen, William J.; Graves, John Temple (1910). Men of Mark in Georgia: A Complete and Elaborate History of the State from Its Settlement to the Present Time, Chiefly Told in Biographies and Autobiographies of the Most Eminent Men of Each Period of Georgia's Progress and Development 2. Atlanta, Georgia: A. B. Caldwell. pp. 131–136.
- "Crawford W. Long". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Boland, Frank Kells (2009). The First Anesthetic: The Story of Crawford Long. Athens: University of Georgia Press. p. 121. ISBN 0820334367. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "Dr. Crawford W. Long Monument. Unveiled at Jefferson, Ga. April 21, 1910". Historic Postcard Collection, RG 48-2-5. Georgia Archives. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "Bulletin of memorial to Crawford W. Long, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1912 April". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "Emory Crawford Long Hospital Renamed Emory University Hospital Midtown" (Press release). Emory Healthcare. February 13, 2009. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- Boland, FK (1950). The first anesthetic: the story of Crawford Long. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. LCCN 50007365. OCLC 14654575.
- Crawford, WM (February 1984). "More on the ether operation". NEJM 310 (8): 534. doi:10.1056/NEJM198402233100824. PMID 6363934.
- "Crawford W. Long (1815–1878) discoverer of ether for anesthesia". JAMA 194 (9): 1008–9. 1965. doi:10.1001/jama.194.9.1008. PMID 5321288.
- Das, Sakti; Nation Earl F. (2004). "Hugh Hampton Young, the anesthesiologist". Urology 64 (3): 628–30. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2003.10.057. PMID 15351622.
- Jacobs, Joseph (1919). Some personal recollections and private correspondence of Dr. Crawford Williamson Long, discoverer of anæsthesia with sulphuric ether; together with documentary proofs of his priority in this wonderful discovery. Atlanta: Jos. Jacobs. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Keys, T. E. (1972). "Historical vignettes. Dr. Crawford Williamson Long (1815–1878)". Anesth Analg 51 (6): 865. doi:10.1213/00000539-197211000-00011. PMID 4564633.
- Taylor, Frances Long (1928). Crawford W. Long & the Discovery of Ether Anesthesia. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. OCLC 1848152.
- "The Crawford W. Long Museum". Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Find-A-Grave Profile for Crawford Williamson Long". Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- "The Discovery of Anaesthesia". Athens Daily Banner (Athens, Georgia). Athens Historic Newspapers Archive. June 16, 1901. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2015.