National Statuary Hall Collection

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Part of the National Statuary Hall Collection.
Presiding over the Hall, Carlo Franzoni's 1819 sculptural chariot clock, the Car of History depicting Clio, the Greek muse of history.

The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is composed of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. Originally set up in the old Hall of the House of Representatives, renamed National Statuary Hall, the expanding collection has since been spread throughout the Capitol.

With the addition of New Mexico's second statue in 2005, the collection is now complete with 100 statues contributed by 50 states. Alabama, Arizona, California, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, and Ohio each replaced one of their first two statues after Congress authorized replacements.

A special act of Congress, Pub.L. 109–116, signed on December 1, 2005, directed the Joint Committee on the Library to obtain a statue of Rosa Parks and to place the statue in the United States Capitol in National Statuary Hall in a suitable permanent location. On February 27, 2013, Parks became the first African American woman to have her likeness in the Hall.[1] Though located in Statuary Hall, Parks' statue is not part of the Collection; neither Alabama (her birth state) nor Michigan (where she lived most of her later years) commissioned it, and both states are represented in the Collection by other statues.


The concept of a National Statuary Hall originated in the middle of the nineteenth century, even before the completion of the present House wing in 1857. At that time, the House of Representatives moved into its new larger chamber and the old vacant chamber became a thoroughfare between the Rotunda and the House wing. Suggestions for the use of the chamber were made as early as 1853 by Gouverneur Kemble, a former member of the House, who pressed for its use as a gallery of historical paintings. The space between the columns seemed too limited for this purpose, but it was well suited for the display of busts and statuary.

Sculptor Cliff Fragua, right, poses at the unveiling and dedication of the Po'pay statue in September 2005. The statue is the 100th in the collection.

On April 19, 1864, Representative Justin S. Morrill asked: "To what end more useful or grand, and at the same time simple and inexpensive, can we devote it [the Chamber] than to ordain that it shall be set apart for the reception of such statuary as each State shall elect to be deserving of in this lasting commemoration?" His proposal to create a National Statuary Hall became law on July 2, 1864:

[...] the President is hereby authorized to invite each and all the States to provide and furnish statues, in marble or bronze, not exceeding two in number for each State, of deceased persons who have been citizens thereof, and illustrious for their historic renown or for distinguished civic or military services such as each State may deem to be worthy of this national commemoration; and when so furnished the same shall be placed in the Old Hall of the House of Representatives, in the Capitol of the United States, which is set apart, or so much thereof as may be necessary, as a national statuary hall for the purpose herein indicated.

Originally, all state statues were placed in National Statuary Hall. However, the aesthetic appearance of the Hall began to suffer from overcrowding until, in 1933, the situation became unbearable. At that time the Hall held 65 statues, which stood, in some cases, three deep. More important, the structure of the chamber would not support the weight of any more statues. Therefore, in 1933 Congress passed a resolution that:

the Architect of the Capitol, upon the approval of the Joint Committee on the Library, with the advice of the Commission of Fine Arts, is hereby authorized and directed to relocate within the Capitol any of the statues already received and placed in Statuary Hall, and to provide for the reception and location of the statues received hereafter from the States.

Under authority of this resolution it was decided that only one statue from each state should be placed in Statuary Hall. The others would be given prominent locations in designated areas and corridors of the Capitol. A second rearrangement of the statues was made in 1976 by authorization of the Joint Committee on the Library. To improve the crowded appearance of the collection, thirty-eight statues were rearranged in Statuary Hall according to height and material. Statues representing ten of the thirteen original colonies were moved to the Central Hall of the East Front Extension on the first floor of the Capitol. The remainder of the statues were distributed throughout the Capitol, mainly in the Hall of Columns and the connecting corridors of the House and Senate wings. Legislation was introduced in 2005 that would authorize the collection to include one statue from each U.S. Territory, and another bill introduced in 2010 provides for participation by the District of Columbia.

Each statue is the gift of a state, not of an individual or group of citizens. Proceedings for the donation of a statue usually begin in the state legislature with the enactment of a resolution that names the citizen to be commemorated and cites his or her qualifications, specifies a committee or commission to represent the state in selecting the sculptor, and provides for a method of obtaining the necessary funds to carry the resolution into effect. In recent years, the statues have been unveiled during ceremonies in the Rotunda and displayed there for up to six months. They are then moved to a permanent location approved by the Joint Committee on the Library. An act of Congress (2 U.S.C. § 2132), enacted in 2000, permits states to provide replacements and repossess the earlier one.



The collection currently includes nine women:[2] Frances E. Willard, the first statue of a woman in the collection, was also sculpted by a woman, Helen Farnsworth Mears;[3] Helen Keller; Florence Sabin; Maria Sanford; Jeannette Rankin, the first woman elected to the House and, famously, the only Member of Congress to vote against U.S. entry into both World Wars; Sakakewa and Sarah Winnemucca, two of the five American Indians in the collection; Mother Joseph, a native of Canada; and Esther Hobart Morris.

Non-White and Hispanic members[edit]

The vast majority of the collection is of White men, but it includes statues of Native Hawaiian Kamehameha I, five American IndiansPo'pay, Sequoyah, Sakakewa, Washakie, and Sarah Winnemucca – and Dennis Chávez, the first person of Hispanic descent to be elected to a full term in the U.S. Senate. Junípero Serra was born in Spain.


The collection contains several statues of leaders of the Confederate States of America, all men who engaged in rebellion against the government that so honors them. These include CSA President Jefferson Davis and Vice President Alexander Stephens and generals, most in Confederate Army uniforms – Robert E. Lee, Joseph Wheeler, James Z. George, Wade Hampton III, and Edmund Kirby Smith – and army officer Zebulon Baird Vance. Alabama replaced its statue of Confederate politician and army officer Jabez Curry in 2009. Florida approved plans to replace Edmund Kirby Smith in 2016 with a person yet to be determined.


State Honoree Image Medium Sculptor Date placed Location
AL Keller, HelenHelen Keller Hellenkellerstatue1.jpg Bronze Edward Hlavka 2009 Capitol Visitor Center[4]
AL Wheeler, JosephJoseph Wheeler Joseph Wheeler bronze by Berthold Nebel.jpg Bronze Berthold Nebel 1925 National Statuary Hall
AK Bartlett, Edward Lewis "Bob"Edward Lewis "Bob" Bartlett Bob Bartlett bronze.jpg Bronze Felix W. de Weldon 1971 House corridor, 2nd Floor
AK Gruening, ErnestErnest Gruening Gruening.jpg Bronze George Anthonisen 1977 Capitol Visitor Center
AZ Goldwater, BarryBarry Goldwater Goldwater Statue.jpg Bronze Deborah Copenhaver Fellows 2015 National Statuary Hall
AZ Kino, Eusebio F.Eusebio F. Kino Eusebio Francisco Kino bronze by Suzanne Silvercruys.jpg Bronze Suzanne Silvercruys 1965 Capitol Visitor Center
AR Rose, Uriah MiltonUriah Milton Rose Uriah Milton Rose marble by Frederic W. Ruckstull.jpg Marble Frederick Ruckstull 1917 National Statuary Hall
AR Clarke, James PaulJames Paul Clarke Clarke cvc 500h 1.jpg Marble Pompeo Coppini 1921 Capitol Visitor Center
CA Reagan, RonaldRonald Reagan Ronald Reagan statue in rotunda.jpg Bronze Chas Fagan 2009 Rotunda
CA Serra, JuniperoJunipero Serra SerraJuniperoOFM.jpg Bronze Ettore Cadorin 1931 National Statuary Hall
CO Sabin, Florence R.Florence R. Sabin Sabin.jpg Bronze Joy Buba 1959 Hall of Columns
CO Swigert, JackJack Swigert Swigert.jpg Bronze George and
Mark Lundeen
1997 Capitol Visitor Center
CT Sherman, RogerRoger Sherman Sherman NSTC.jpg Marble Chauncey Ives 1872 Crypt
CT Trumbull, JonathanJonathan Trumbull Trumbull1.jpg Marble Chauncey Ives 1872 House corridor, 2nd Floor
DE Clayton, John M.John M. Clayton Clayton cvc 500h 1.jpg Marble Bryant Baker 1934 Capitol Visitor Center
DE Rodney, CaesarCaesar Rodney Rodney NSHC.jpg Marble Bryant Baker 1934 Crypt
FL Gorrie, JohnJohn Gorrie Gorrie.jpg Marble C. Adrian Pillars 1914 National Statuary Hall
FL Smith, Edmund KirbyEdmund Kirby Smith[5] Smith cvc 500h 1.jpg Bronze C. Adrian Pillars 1922 Capitol Visitor Center
GA Long, Crawford W.Crawford W. Long Statue of Crawford W. Long by J. Massey Rhind.jpg Marble J. Massey Rhind 1926 Crypt
GA Stephens, AlexanderAlexander Stephens Alexander Hamilton Stephens sculpture.jpg Marble Gutzon Borglum 1927 National Statuary Hall
HI Damien, FatherFather Damien Statue of Father Damien (National Statuary Hall Collection).jpg Bronze Marisol Escobar 1969 Hall of Columns
HI Kamehameha I Kamehameha cvc 500h 1.jpg Bronze Thomas R. Gould 1969 Capitol Visitor Center
ID Shoup, George LairdGeorge Laird Shoup Shoup.jpg Marble Frederick Triebel 1910 National Statuary Hall
ID Borah, William EdgarWilliam Edgar Borah Borah.jpg Bronze Bryant Baker 1947 Capitol Visitor Center
IL Shields, JamesJames Shields Shields NSHC.jpg Bronze Leonard W. Volk 1893 Hall of Columns
IL Willard, Frances E.Frances E. Willard Frances Willard sculpture.jpg Marble Helen F. Mears 1905 National Statuary Hall
IN Morton, Oliver P.Oliver P. Morton OHP Morton, by Charles Henry Niehaus.JPG Marble Charles Niehaus 1900 Senate Wing, 1st Floor
IN Wallace, LewisLewis Wallace Wallace NSHC.jpg Marble Andrew O'Connor 1910 National Statuary Hall
IA Kirkwood, Samuel JordanSamuel Jordan Kirkwood Kirkwood NSHC.jpg Bronze Vinnie Ream 1913 National Statuary Hall
IA Borlaug, NormanNorman Borlaug Norman Borlaug Statue.jpg Bronze Benjamin Victor 2014 National Statuary Hall
KS Ingalls, John JamesJohn James Ingalls Ingalls.jpg Marble Charles Niehaus 1905 National Statuary Hall
KS Eisenhower, Dwight D.Dwight D. Eisenhower Eisenhower bronze.jpg Bronze Jim Brothers 2003 Rotunda
KY Clay, HenryHenry Clay Henry Clay Sculpture.jpg Bronze Charles Niehaus 1929 National Statuary Hall
KY McDowell, EphraimEphraim McDowell Ephraim McDowell, statue by Charles H. Niehaus.jpg Bronze Charles Niehaus 1929 Capitol Visitor Center
LA Long, Huey PierceHuey Pierce Long Long h.jpg Bronze Charles Keck 1941 National Statuary Hall
LA White, Edward DouglassEdward Douglass White Arthur C Morgan bronze White.jpg Bronze Arthur C. Morgan 1955 Capitol Visitor Center
ME King, WilliamWilliam King King w.jpg Marble Franklin Simmons 1878 House corridor, 2nd Floor
ME Hamlin, HannibalHannibal Hamlin Hamlin.jpg Bronze Charles E. Tefft 1935 National Statuary Hall
MD Carroll, CharlesCharles Carroll Carrollnshc.jpg Bronze Richard E. Brooks 1903 Crypt
MD Hanson, JohnJohn Hanson Hansonnshc.jpg Bronze Richard E. Brooks 1903 Senate corridor, 2nd Floor
MA Adams, SamuelSamuel Adams Samuel Adams given by Massachusetts to the National Statuary Hall Collection.jpg Marble Anne Whitney 1876 Crypt
MA Winthrop, JohnJohn Winthrop John Winthrop statue.jpg Marble Richard S. Greenough 1876 Hall of Columns
MI Cass, LewisLewis Cass Cass NSHC.jpg Marble Daniel Chester French 1889 National Statuary Hall
MI Ford, GeraldGerald Ford Gerald R Ford sculpture.jpg Bronze J. Brett Gill 2011 Rotunda
MN Rice, Henry MowerHenry Mower Rice Rice NSHC.jpg Marble Frederick Triebel 1916 National Statuary Hall
MN Sanford, Maria L.Maria L. Sanford Sanford cvc 500h 1.jpg Bronze Evelyn Raymond 1958 Capitol Visitor Center
MS Davis, JeffersonJefferson Davis Jefferson Davis Statue.jpg Bronze Augustus Lukeman 1931 National Statuary Hall
MS George, James Z.James Z. George George cvc 500h 1.jpg Bronze Augustus Lukeman 1931 Capitol Visitor Center
MO Benton, Thomas HartThomas Hart Benton Benton NSHC.jpg Marble Alexander Doyle 1899 National Statuary Hall
MO Blair, Jr., Francis PrestonFrancis Preston Blair, Jr. Francis Preston Blair Jr.jpg Marble Alexander Doyle 1899 Hall of Columns
MT Russell, Charles MarionCharles Marion Russell Russell 1.jpg Bronze John B. Weaver 1959 National Statuary Hall
MT Rankin, JeannetteJeannette Rankin Rankin cvc 500h 1.jpg Bronze Terry Minmaugh 1985 Capitol Visitor Center
NE Bryan, William JenningsWilliam Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan sculpture.jpg Bronze Rudulph Evans 1937 National Statuary Hall
NE Morton, J. SterlingJ. Sterling Morton Morton cvc 500h 1.jpg Bronze Rudulph Evans 1937 Capitol Visitor Center
NV McCarran, Patrick AnthonyPatrick Anthony McCarran Mccarran.jpg Bronze Yolande Jacobson 1960 Senate Wing, 2nd Floor
NV Winnemucca, SarahSarah Winnemucca Sarah Winnemucca statue.jpg Bronze Benjamin Victor 2005 Capitol Visitor Center
NH Stark, JohnJohn Stark Stark.jpg Marble Carl Conrads 1894 Crypt
NH Webster, DanielDaniel Webster Webster NSHC.jpg Marble Carl Conrads (after Thomas Ball) 1894 National Statuary Hall
NJ Kearny, PhilipPhilip Kearny Kearny.jpg Bronze Henry Kirke Brown 1888 Hall of Columns
NJ Stockton, RichardRichard Stockton Stockton.jpg Marble Henry Kirke Brown (completed by
Henry Kirke Bush-Brown)
1888 Crypt
NM Chavez, DennisDennis Chavez Dennis Chavez.jpg Bronze Felix W. de Weldon 1966 Senate Wing, 2nd Floor
NM Po'pay Po-Pay cvc 500h 1.jpg Marble Cliff Fragua 2005 Capitol Visitor Center
NY Clinton, GeorgeGeorge Clinton George Clinton bronze statue by Henry Kirke Brown.jpg Bronze Henry Kirke Brown 1873 Senate Wing, 2nd Floor
NY Livingston, Robert R.Robert R. Livingston Livingston1.jpg Bronze Erastus Dow Palmer 1875 Crypt
NC Vance, Zebulon BairdZebulon Baird Vance Vance.jpg Bronze Gutzon Borglum 1916 National Statuary Hall
NC Aycock, Charles BrantleyCharles Brantley Aycock Aycock.jpg Bronze Charles Keck 1932 Crypt
ND Burke, JohnJohn Burke John burke.jpg Bronze Avard Fairbanks 1963 National Statuary Hall
ND Sakakawea Sakakawea cvc 500h 1.jpg Bronze Arizona Bronze Atelier (after Leonard Crunelle, 1909) 2003 Capitol Visitor Center
OH Garfield, James A.James A. Garfield Garfield NSHC.jpg Marble Charles Niehaus 1886 Rotunda
OH Edison, ThomasThomas Edison Bronze Alan Cottrill 2016[6] National Statuary Hall
OK Sequoyah Sequoyah NSHC.jpg Bronze Vinnie Ream (completed by G. Julian Zolnay) 1917 National Statuary Hall
OK Rogers, WillWill Rogers Rogers NSHC.jpg Bronze Jo Davidson 1939 House corridor, 2nd Floor
OR Lee, JasonJason Lee Lee j.jpg Bronze Gifford MacG. Proctor 1953 National Statuary Hall
OR McLoughlin, JohnJohn McLoughlin Mcloughlin.jpg Bronze Gifford MacG. Proctor 1953 Capitol Visitor Center
PA Fulton, RobertRobert Fulton Fultonnshc.jpg Marble Howard Roberts 1889 National Statuary Hall
PA Muhlenberg, John Peter GabrielJohn Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg Peter Muhlenberg.jpg Marble Blanche Nevin 1889 Crypt
RI Greene, NathanaelNathanael Greene Greene.jpg Marble Henry Kirke Brown 1870 Crypt
RI Williams, RogerRoger Williams Williams NSHC.jpg Marble Franklin Simmons 1872 Senate corridor, 2nd Floor
SC Calhoun, John C.John C. Calhoun Calhoun NSHC.jpg Marble Frederick Ruckstull 1910 Crypt
SC Hampton, WadeWade Hampton Hampton cvc 500h 1.jpg Marble Frederick Ruckstull 1929 Capitol Visitor Center
SD Beadle, William Henry HarrisonWilliam Henry Harrison Beadle Beadle.jpg Bronze H. Daniel Webster 1938 National Statuary Hall
SD Ward, JosephJoseph Ward Ward cvc 500h 1.jpg Marble Bruno Beghé 1963 Capitol Visitor Center
TN Jackson, AndrewAndrew Jackson Jackson NSHC.jpg Bronze Belle Kinney Scholz
and Leopold Scholz
1928 Rotunda
TN Sevier, JohnJohn Sevier Sevier.jpg Bronze Belle Kinney Scholz
and Leopold Scholz
1931 National Statuary Hall
TX Austin, Stephen F.Stephen F. Austin Stephen Austin by Elisabet Ney,1905.jpg Marble Elisabet Ney 1905 Hall of Columns
TX Houston, SamSam Houston Sam Houston by Elisabet Ney,1905.jpg Marble Elisabet Ney 1905 National Statuary Hall
UT Young, BrighamBrigham Young Young.jpg Marble Mahonri Young 1950 National Statuary Hall
UT Farnsworth, Philo T.Philo T. Farnsworth Farnsworth cvc 500h 1.jpg Bronze James R. Avati 1990 Capitol Visitor Center
VT Allen, EthanEthan Allen Allen e.jpg Marble Larkin G. Mead 1876 National Statuary Hall
VT Collamer, JacobJacob Collamer Collamer.jpg Marble Preston Powers 1881 Senate Wing, 1st Floor
VA Lee, Robert E.Robert E. Lee Lee r.jpg Bronze Edward V. Valentine 1934 Crypt
VA Washington, GeorgeGeorge Washington Washington NSHC.jpg Bronze Jean Antoine Houdon 1934 Rotunda
WA Whitman, MarcusMarcus Whitman Whitman.jpg Bronze Avard Fairbanks 1953 National Statuary Hall
WA Joseph, MotherMother Joseph Mother Joseph statue United States Capitol side view.jpg Bronze Felix W. de Weldon 1980 Capitol Visitor Center
WV Kenna, John E.John E. Kenna Kenna.jpg Marble Alexander Doyle 1901 Hall of Columns
WV Pierpont, Francis HarrisonFrancis Harrison Pierpont Pierpont.jpg Marble Franklin Simmons 1910 National Statuary Hall
WI Marquette, JacquesJacques Marquette Marquette NSHC.jpg Marble Gaetano Trentanove 1896 House corridor, 2nd Floor
WI La Follette, Sr., Robert M.Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Lafollet.jpg Marble Jo Davidson 1929 National Statuary Hall
WY Morris, Esther HobartEsther Hobart Morris Morris NSHC.jpg Bronze Avard Fairbanks 1960 Hall of Columns
WY Washakie Washakie cvc 500h 1.jpg Bronze Dave McGary 2000 Capitol Visitor Center

Replacement of statues[edit]

A 2003 change in the law allows a state to remove a previously placed statue from the collection and replace it with another. Since this change, seven states have replaced statues, with one of those states in the process of replacing a second statue; one other is in the process of replacing a statue:


  1. ^ "Rosa Parks: First Statue of African-American Female to Grace Capitol". ABC News. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  2. ^ Equal Visibility Everywhere blog post
  3. ^ AOC page
  4. ^ "National Statuary Hall Collection – Helen Keller". Architect of the Capitol. December 4, 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  5. ^ On March 11, 2016, Florida Governor Rick Scott signed legislation to remove the statue of Edmund Kirby Smith, with a recommendation that the Florida legislature name a replacement. Florida Politics post
  6. ^ a b Wehrman, Jessica (September 21, 2016). "Thomas Edison statue dedicated in U.S. Capitol's Statuary Hall". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved February 3, 2017. 
  7. ^ Holland, Judy (29 March 2008). "Capitol statues switched as subjects' fame fades". Star Tribune. Minneapolis: Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  8. ^ Biles, Jan (12 March 2011). "Amelia's monument about to take flight". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  9. ^ Cheevers, Jack (29 May 2009). "Thomas Starr King deserves better". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  10. ^ Simon, Richard (10 September 2011). "Zachariah who? States swap out statues in Capitol hall of fame". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  11. ^ Camia, Catalina (3 May 2011). "Gerald Ford honored with statue in U.S. Capitol". USA Today. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  12. ^ "Statue swap: Zachariah Chandler comes home to Michigan as Gerald R. Ford heads to U.S. Capitol". The Grand Rapids Press. Associated Press. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  13. ^ Doering, Christopher (26 March 2014). "Norman Borlaug enters U.S. Capital's Statuary Hall". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  14. ^ Henderson, O. Kay (9 April 2013). "Harlan statue will move from U.S. Capitol to Mt. Pleasant". Iowa Public Radio. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  15. ^ Theobald, Bill (February 11, 2015). "Goldwater statue dedicated in National Statuary Hall". The Arizona Republic. Phoenix. Retrieved March 1, 2015. 
  16. ^ "History". Ohio Statuary Hall Commission. Retrieved 2014-06-05. In 2012, the 129th Ohio General Assembly and Governor Kasich formalized the public vote to replace Allen with Thomas Edison through passage of HB 487 (section 701.121). 
  17. ^ "Panel recommends Thomas Edison statue go in U.S. Capitol". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland: Associated Press. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  18. ^ McGreevy, Patrick (April 13, 2015). "State Senate calls for swapping Father Serra statue with one of Sally Ride". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 14, 2015. 
    Finley, Allysia (4 June 2014). "The Political Assault on California's Saint". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 5 June 2015. The state Assembly and Gov. Brown would still need to OK the statue swap, which doesn’t appear to be a legislative priority for either. 
  19. ^ "Governor McCrory Signs Bill Requesting Statue of Billy Graham be Placed in U.S. Capitol" (Press release). North Carolina Office of the Governor. 2015-10-07. Retrieved October 8, 2015. 
  20. ^ "Procedure and Guidelines for Replacement of Statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection" (PDF). Architect of the Capitol. January 2014. Retrieved 2015-10-07. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°53′23″N 77°00′32″W / 38.88972°N 77.00889°W / 38.88972; -77.00889