A thoughtcrime is an Orwellian neologism used to describe an illegal thought. The term was popularized in the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell, first published in 1949, wherein thoughtcrime is the criminal act of holding unspoken beliefs or doubts that oppose or question Ingsoc, the ruling party. In the book, the government attempts to control not only the speech and actions, but also the thoughts of its subjects. To entertain unacceptable thoughts is known as crimethink (or wrongthink) in Newspeak, the ideologically purified dialect of the party. Crimestop is a way to avoid crimethink by immediately purging dangerous thoughts from the mind.
The term has been adopted into the English language to describe beliefs contrary to accepted norms and has retrospectively been used to describe some theological concepts such as disbelief or idolatry, or a rejection of strong philosophical or social principles.
The Thought Police (thinkpol in Newspeak) are the secret police of the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. It is their job to uncover and punish thoughtcrime. The Thought Police use surveillance and psychological monitoring to find and eliminate members of society who challenge the party's authority and ideology.
The term "Thought Police", by extension, has come to refer to real or perceived enforcement of ideological correctness.
Technology and thoughtcrime
Technology played a significant part in the detection of thoughtcrime in Nineteen Eighty-Four—with the ubiquitous telescreens which could inform the government and misinform and monitor the population. The citizens of Oceania are watched by the Thought Police through the telescreens. Every movement, reflex, facial expression, and reaction is measured by this system, monitored by the Ministry of Love.
Any sound that Winston made, above the level of a very low whisper, would be picked up by it; moreover, so long as he remained within the field of vision which the metal plaque commanded, he could be seen as well as heard. There was of course no way of knowing whether you were being watched at any given moment. How often, or on what system, the Thought Police plugged in on any individual wire was guesswork.— Part I, Chapter I, Nineteen Eighty-Four
At times, it seems as if the telescreen is constantly watching each citizen. Winston Smith recognises that he has no idea who is behind the technology, watching him or anyone else.
If you made unexpected movements they yelled at you from the telescreen.— Part III, Chapter I, Nineteen Eighty-Four
Because of this system of surveillance, the Thought Police and the Ministry of Love become universally feared by any member of the Outer Party or any one of the 'Proles' who is capable (or felt by the Party to be capable) of thoughtcrime.
"Crimestop" means to rid oneself of unwanted thoughts immediately, i.e., thoughts that interfere or disagree with the ideology of the Party. This way, a person avoids committing thoughtcrime.
In the novel, we hear about crimestop through the eyes of protagonist Winston Smith:
The mind should develop a blind spot whenever a dangerous thought presented itself. The process should be automatic, instinctive. Crimestop, they called it in Newspeak.
He set to work to exercise himself in crimestop. He presented himself with propositions—'the Party says the earth is flat', 'the party says that ice is heavier than water'—and trained himself in not seeing or not understanding the arguments that contradicted them.
Orwell also describes crimestop from the perspective of Emmanuel Goldstein in the book The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism:
Crimestop means the faculty of stopping short, as though by instinct, at the threshold of any dangerous thought. It includes the power of not grasping analogies, of failing to perceive logical errors, of misunderstanding the simplest arguments if they are inimical to Ingsoc, and of being bored or repelled by any train of thought which is capable of leading in a heretical direction. Crimestop, in short, means protective stupidity.
Adoption and modern usage
Some modern writers[who?] have described people who were prosecuted and burned at the stake for heresy in various countries that followed Abrahamic religions, as having been the victims of thoughtcrime laws; such victims would sometimes be offered the chance to repent for their thoughtcrimes.[page needed]
Similarly people have been executed, or imprisoned in concentration camps, during the 20th century under totalitarian regimes, such as Adolf Hitler's Third Reich (Nazi Germany), Stalinist Soviet Union, Maoist China, and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge.
A less drastic example of thought-policing in action is the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016, originally intended to curtail the legal highs epidemic in the UK. Far from stopping the spread of Spice or Mamba on our streets, it drove the synthetic cannabinoid market underground and into the hands of even more unscrupulous dealers than the vendors who sold them online. The act basically imposes a blanket ban on any substance or product deemed "psychoactive", except for alcohol, tobacco and caffeine, along with medicinal and/or pharmaceutical products, hence why kratom is banned whereas phenibut is easy and relatively cheap to import from the former Soviet bloc, where it has been used since the 1960s. What is more, since it takes 2hrs or so to begin, another 4-6hrs to climax (i.e peak of subjective effects) followed by the calm, calculated and rather more dignified state of affairs which lasts well into the following day, than if I'd lifted the lid on my savings account and pissed half of my savings away.
- Free will
- Freedom of thought
- Hate crime
- Hate speech
- Institutional knowledge
- Internal sin
- Intrusive thoughts
- Involuntary commitment
- Language and thought
- Laws against Holocaust denial
- Laws against Armenian Genocide denial
- Mens rea
- Political correctness
- Prisoner of conscience
- Seditious libel
- Thought identification
- Thought suppression
- Orwell, George; Rovere, Richard Halworth (1984) , The Orwell Reader: Fiction, Essays, and Reportage, San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, p. 409, ISBN 0-15-670176-6.
- Papers in Ethics and Social Philosophy: - Volume 3 - Page 107, David Lewis - 2000
- Evidence, Policy and Practice: Critical Perspectives in Health and Social Care, Jon Glasby - 2011, p 22
- McCormick, Donald (1980), Approaching 1984, Newton Abbot, Devon, England: David & Charles, p. 21, ISBN 0-7153-7654-3.
- Orwell, George (1949). Nineteen Eighty-Four. Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd, London, pp 220-1
- Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare, Stephen Greenblatt - 2012
- Davies, Sarah Rosemary (Oct 2, 1997). Popular Opinion in Stalin's Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934-1941 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521566766. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Cohen, Jerome A. (September 28, 2016). "Maoist thought police". South China Morning Post (International). Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Ruth, Jennifer. "Justice to a Small Potato: Thoughtcrime at the Museum of Cultural Revolution". Propeller Magazine. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Kretzmer, David (2000), Kershman, Hazan Francine, ed., Freedom of Speech and Incitement Against Democracy, The Hague, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, ISBN 90-411-1341-X Missing
|last1=in Editors list (help).
|Look up thoughtcrime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Cunningham & Cunningham, Inc. "Thought Crime".
- The Essayist, "Hate Crime Premise" 24 July 1998.
- Evenson, Brad, "Looking for thoughtcrime to crimestop". National Post, 8 February 2003.
- Peabody, Michael "Thought & Crime," Liberty Magazine, March/April 2008.
- Reuters, "Thoughtcrime a Reality: U.S. Toughens Child Pornography Law". 2 October 1996.
- Guardian report: MPs criticise lock-up plan for mentally ill. 25 July 2000.
- The Malicious Communications Act of 1988 Malicious Communications Act 1988
- New York Post, "Wannabe jihadist sentenced for 27 years in prison". 3 March 2012.