Idolatry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"False idols" redirects here. For the Tricky album, see False Idols.
Hinduism
Buddhism
Eastern Orthodox
Catholicism
Examples of idolatry in different cultures. Clockwise from upper left: Hinduism, Buddhism,[1] Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox (Christianity).[2][3]

Idolatry literally means idol worship, that is any reverence of an image, statue or icon.[4][5] In Abrahamic religions, namely Christianity, Islam and Judaism, idolatry connotes the worship of something or someone other than God as if it were God. In these and several other monotheistic religions, idolatry has been considered as the "worship of false gods" and is forbidden.[6] In many Indian religions, such as theistic and non-theistic forms of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, idols (murti) are considered as symbolism for the absolute but not the absolute,[7] or icons of spiritual ideas,[7][8] or the embodiment of the divine.[9] They are a means to focus one's religious pursuits and worship (bhakti).[7][10][8] In the Traditional Religions of ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Africa, Asia, Americas and elsewhere, idolatry has been a common practice and idols have carried different meanings and significance.[4]

The opposition to the use of any icon or image to represent ideas of reverence or worship is called aniconism.[11] The destruction of idols and images as icons of veneration is called iconoclasm,[12] and this has long marked the violence between religions that forbid idol worship and those who have traditionally accepted or developed icons, images and idols for worship.[13][14] The definition of idolatry has been a contested topic within Abrahamic religions, with Muslims considering the Christian veneration of the cross as a symbol of Christ, and of Madonna in some churches, as a form of idolatry.[15][16] In Islam, idolaters are called shirk, and idolatry in strict Sharia-based Islamic societies is punishable with the death penalty.[17][18][19]

Etymology and nomenclature[edit]

The word idolatry comes from the Greek word eidololatria (εἰδωλολατρία) which itself is a compound of two words: eidolon (image, from εἴδωλον)[20] and latreia ("worship", related to λάτρις).[21] The word eidololatria thus means "worship of idols", which in Latin appears first as idololatria, then in Vulgar Latin as idolatria, therefrom it appears in 12th century Old French as idolatrie, which for the first time in mid 13th century English appears as "idolatry".[22][23]

Although the Greek appears to be a loan translation of the Hebrew phrase avodat elilim, which is attested in rabbinic literature (e.g., bChul., 13b, Bar.), the Greek term itself is not found in the Septuagint, Philo, Josephus, or in other Hellenistic Jewish writings.[citation needed] The original term used in early rabbinic writings is oved avodah zarah (AAZ, worship of avoda zara, or "pagan"), while avodat kochavim umazalot (AKUM, worship of planets and constellations) is not found in its early manuscripts.[24]

Idolatry is related to or has been alternatively referred to as idolism,[25] iconolatry[26] or idolodulia in historic literature.[27]

Prehistoric and ancient civilizations[edit]

Idols were common in prehistoric and ancient civilizations. Figurines from the pre-2,300 BCE (left) and Canaanite idolatry with supreme God El featured simple to complex images.

The earliest figurine idols of mother goddess have been dated to the prehistoric Neolithic era (10,000 BCE onwards), in many parts of the world, long before the start of ancient dynastic Egyptian civilization.[28] Archaeological evidence from the islands of the Aegean Sea have yielded Neolithic era Cycladic idols from 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, idols in namaste posture from Indus Valley civilization sites from the 3rd millennium BCE, and much older petroglyphs around the world show humans began producing sophisticated images.[29][30] However, because of a lack of historic texts describing these, it is unclear if and what idolatrous practices or religious beliefs were associated with these idols,[31] or whether these were just ancient toys.[32][33][34]

The earliest historic records confirming idolatry are from the ancient Egyptian civilization, thereafter related to the Greek civilization.[35] By the 2nd millennium BCE two broad forms of idolatry appear, in one idols are zoomorphic (god in the image of animal or animal-human fusion) and in another anthropomorphic (god in the image of man).[31] The former is more commonly found in ancient Egypt influenced beliefs, while the anthropomorphic images are more commonly found in Indo-European idolatry.[35][36] Symbols of nature, useful animals or feared animals were usually included by both in the idols and associated idolatry. The stelae from 4,000 to 2,500 BCE period discovered in France, Ireland through Ukraine, and in Central Asia through South Asia, suggest that the ancient anthropomorphic idols included zoomorphic motifs.[36] In Nordic and Indian subcontinent idolatry, bovine (cow, ox, -*gwdus, -*g'ou) motifs or statues, for example, were common.[37][38] In Ireland, the treasured icon included pigs.[39]

The ancient Egyptian civilization was polytheistic, with large idols that were either animals or included animal parts. The ancient Greek civilization preferred human forms, typically in perfected proportions, for divine representation.[35] The Canaanites of West Asia incorporated a golden calf in their pantheon.[40] In Egypt, idolatry became the vehicle of religious ideas, but the access to the gods became monopolized by the elite for those in power. It is in this environment, Moses and Aaron met and unsuccessfully requested the Pharaoh to allow Israelites to go into the desert to make a sacrifice, and then later led an exodus from Egypt and the Biblical commandment on idolatry.[40]

The ancient philosophy and practices of the Greeks, thereafter Romans, were imbued with polytheistic idolatry.[41][42] They debate what is an image and if the use of image is appropriate. To Plato, images can be a remedy or poison to the human experience.[43] To Aristotle, states Paul Kugler, an image is an appropriate mental intermediary that "bridges between the inner world of the mind and the outer world of material reality", the image is a vehicle between sensation and reason. Idols are useful psychological catalysts, they reflect sense data and pre-existing inner feelings. They are neither the origins nor the destinations of thought but the intermediary in the human inner journey.[43][44] Fervid opposition to the idolatry of the Greeks and Romans were a target of Christianity and Islam, particularly during the Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire era in the Mediterranean region, as evidenced by the widespread desecration and defacement of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture that have survived into the modern era.[45][46][47]

Abrahamic Religions[edit]

Christianity[edit]

The ideas on idolatry in Christianity has been influenced by the first of Ten Commandments.

You shall have no other gods before me.[48]

This is expressed in the Old Testament in Exodus 20:3, Matt 4:10, Luke 4:8 and others such as:[48]

Ye shall make you no idols nor graven image, neither rear you up a standing image, neither shall ye set up any image of stone in your land, to bow down unto it: for I am the Lord your God. Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary. --Leviticus 26:1–2, King James Bible[49]

The Christian view of idolatry may generally be divided into two general categories, the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox view which accepts the use of religious idols and other images,[2] and the Protestant view which does not. However, Protestants have historically venerated and organized their worship with the image of cross as a symbol, which Catholic scholars state is equivalent to their own iconography and that there is no need for a war against fine arts, paintings and statues.[50][51]

Catholicism[edit]

The image and worship of Virgin Mary, Jesus Christ, Black Madonna has been widespread in Catholicism.[3]

The Roman Catholic and particularly the Orthodox Churches have traditionally defended the use of icons. The debate on what idols and images signify and whether reverence with the help of icons in church is equivalent to idolatry has been a historic debate, particularly from the 7th century onwards through the era of sixteenth century Reformation.[52] These debates have supported the inclusion of idols and icons for Jesus Christ, Virgin Mary, the Apostles, the legendary iconography expressed in stained glass, regional saints and other symbols of Christian faith. It has also supported the practices such as the Catholic mass, the reverential use of the bread and the wine as representation of Jesus' body and blood, burning of candles before pictures, Christmas decoration and celebrations, and festive or memorial processions with statues of religious significance to Christianity.[52][53][54]

St. John of Damascus, in his "On the Divine Image" defended the use of icons and images, in direct response to the Byzantine iconoclasm that began widespread destruction of idols in the 8th century, with support from emperor Leo III and continued by his successor Constantine V during a period of religious war with the invading Umayyads.[55] John of Damascus wrote, "I venture to draw an image of the invisible God, not as invisible, but as having become visible for our sakes through flesh and blood," adding that images are expressions "for remembrance either of wonder, or an honor, or dishonor, or good, or evil" and that a book is also a written image in another form.[56][57] He defended the religious use of images based on the Christian doctrine of Jesus as an incarnation.[58]

St. John the Evangelist cited John 1:14, stating that "the Word became flesh" indicates that the invisible God became visible, that God's glory manifested in God's one and only Son as Jesus Christ, and therefore God chose to make the invisible into a visible form, the spiritual incarnated into the material form.[59][60]

Pope Pius V praying with a crucifix, painting by August Kraus

The early defense of idols and images included exegesis of Old and New Testament. Evidence for the use of these is found in the Old Testament and in Early Christian worship. For example, the veneration of the tombs and statues of martyrs was common among early Christian communities. In 397 St. Augustine of Hippo, in his Confessions 6.2.2, tells the story of his mother making offerings for the statues and tombs of martyrs.[61]

Images function as the Bible
for the illiterate, and
incite people to piety and virtue.

Pope Gregory I, 7th century[62]

The Catholic defense mention textual evidence which state external acts of honour towards icons, arguing that there are "different kinds of worship" and that the honour shown to icons differs entirely from the adoration of God. Citing the Old Testament, these arguments present examples of forms of "honour" such as in Genesis 33:3, with the argument that, "adoration is one thing, and that which is offered in order to honour something of great excellence is another." These arguments assert, "the honour given to the image is transferred to its prototype", and that venerating an image of Christ does not terminate at the image itself – the material of the image is not the object of worship – rather it goes beyond the image, to the prototype.[63][62][64]

Orthodox Church[edit]

The Eastern Orthodox Church has differentiated between latria and dulia. A latria is the veneration due God, and latria to anyone or anything other than God is doctrinally forbidden by the Orthodox Church; however dulia has been defined as veneration of religious images, statues or icons which is not only allowed but obligatory.[65] This distinction was discussed by Thomas Acquinas in section 3.25 of Summa Theologiae.[66]

The practice of worshipping the idol or image of Mary is called Mariolatry (above: Lithuania), one questioned in Protestant Christianity.[67][68]

In Orthodox apologetics literature, proper and improper idolatry is extensively discussed. Exegetical orthodox literature points to icons and the manufacture by Moses (under God's commandment) of the Bronze Snake in Numbers 21:9, which had the grace and power of God to heal those bitten by real snakes. Similarly, the Ark of the Covenant was cited as evidence of the ritual object above which Yahweh was present.[69][70]

Veneration of icons through proskynesis was codified in 787 CE by the Seventh Ecumenical Council.[71][72] This was triggered by the Byzantine Iconoclasm controversy that followed raging Christian-Islam wars and a period of idol destruction in West Asia.[71][73] The defense of images and the role of the Syrian scholar John of Damascus was pivotal during this period. The Eastern Orthodoxy sect of Christianity has ever since celebrated the use of icons and images. Eastern-rite Catholics also accepts idols and icons in their Divine Liturgy.[74]

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, "Idolatry not only refers to false pagan worship. Man commits idolatry whenever he honours and reveres a creature in place of God, whether this be gods, or demons (for example satanism), power, pleasure, race, ancestors, the state, money etc."[75] The manufacture of images, icons and idols of Jesus, Virgin Mary and Christian saints, along with prayers directed to these has been widespread among Catholic faithfuls.[3][76]

Protestantism[edit]

The idolatry debate has been one of the defining differences between Papal Catholicism and Anti-papal Protestantism.[77] The anti-papal writers have prominently questioned the worship practices, idols and images supported by the Catholics, with many Protestant scholars listing it as the "one religious error larger than all others". The sub-list of erring practices have included among other things Mariolatry or the worship of Virgin Mary as a form of idolatry, the Catholic mass, the invocation of saints, and the reverence expected for and expressed to Pope himself.[77] The charges of idolatry against the Roman Catholics were leveled by a diverse group of Protestants, from the Church of England to John Calvin in Geneva.[77][78]

Altar with Christian bible and crucifix on it, in a Lutheran church

Protestants did not abandon all icons and symbols of Christianity. They typically avoid the use of images, except the cross, in any context suggestive of veneration. The cross remained their central icon.[79][80] Technically both major sects of Christianity have had their iconic idols, states Carlos Eire – a professor of Religious Studies and History, but its meaning has been different to each and "one man's devotion was another man's idolatry".[81] This was particularly true not only in the intra-Christian debate, states Eire, but also when soldiers of Catholic kings replaced "horrible Aztec idols" in the American colonies with "beautiful crosses and Mary idols".[81]

Protestants often accuse Catholics of idolatry, iconolatry, and even paganism for failing to "cleanse their faith" of the use of images; in the Protestant Reformation such language was common to all Protestants. In some cases, such as the Puritan groups denounced all forms of religious objects, whether in three-dimensional or two-dimensional form, including the Christian cross.[82]

The body of Christ on the cross is an ancient symbol used within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, in contrast with some Protestant groups, which use only a simple cross. In Judaism, the reverence to the icon of Christ in the form of cross has been seen as idolatry.[83] However, some Jewish scholars disagree and consider Christianity to be based on Jewish belief and not truly idolatrous.[84]

Islam[edit]

Main articles: Shirk (Islam) and Taghut

The two most common terms connoting idolatry in Sharia, that is Islamic law according to the Quran and the Hadiths, are Shirk (sh-r-k)[85] and Kafir (k-f-r).[86][87] A kufr or unbeliever in Islam, is legally equivalent to a shirk, in Islamic jurisprudence.[85] The one who associates with a kufr or shirk is called mushrik or mushrikun in the Islamic scriptures.[88] The Quran forbids idolatry.[88] Over 500 mentions of kufr and shirk are found in the Quran,[86] with some verses mentioning the destruction of idols and violence against idolaters:[89]

Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

— Quran 9.5, Translator: Pickthal[Quran 9:5]

The Islamic concept of idolatry extends beyond polytheism, and includes Christians and Jews as shirk and kufr.[90][91] For example:

They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary. The Messiah (himself) said: O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Lo! whoso ascribeth partners unto Allah, for him Allah hath forbidden paradise. His abode is the Fire. For evil-doers there will be no helpers.

— Quran 5.72, Translator: Pickthal[Quran 5:72]

Islam strongly prohibits all form of idolatry, which is part of the sin of shirk (Arabic: شرك‎‎); širk comes from the Arabic root Š-R-K (ش ر ك), with the general meaning of "to share". In the context of the Qur'an, the particular sense of "sharing as an equal partner" is usually understood as "attributing a partner to Allah". Shirk is often translated as idolatry and polytheism.[85] In the Qur'an, shirk and the related word (plural Stem IV active participle) mušrikūn (مشركون) "those who commit shirk" often refers to the enemies of Islam (as in verse 9.1–15) but sometimes it also refers to erring Muslims.[citation needed]

Within Islam, shirk is an unforgivable crime; God may forgive any sin except for committing shirk. In practice, especially among strict conservative interpretations of Islam, the term has been greatly extended and means deification of anyone or anything other than the singular God. It may be used very widely to describe behaviour that does not literally constitute worship, including use of images of sentient beings, building a structure over a grave, associating partners with God, giving his characteristics to others beside him, or not believing in his characteristics.[citation needed]

Judaism[edit]

This is an image of a copy of the 1675 Ten Commandments, at the Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue, produced on parchment in 1768 by Jekuthiel Sofer, a prolific Jewish scribe in Amsterdam. It has Hebrew language writing in two columns separated between, and surrounded by, ornate flowery patterns.
A 1768 synagogue parchment with the Ten Commandments by Jekuthiel Sofer. Among other things, it prohibits idolatry[92]

Judaism prohibits any form of idolatry.[93] According to its commandments, neither is worship of foreign gods in any form or through icons allowed, nor is idolatrous worship of the God of Israel permitted.[93][94]

Many Jewish scholars such as Rabbi Saadia Gaon, Rabbi Bahya ibn Paquda, and Rabbi Yehuda Halevi have elaborated on the issues of idolatry. One of the oft cited discussion is the commentary of Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Maimonides) on idolatry.[94] According to the Maimonidean interpretation, idolatry in itself not a fundamental sin, but the grave sin is the belief that God can be corporeal. In the Jewish belief, the only image of God is man, one who lives and thinks, God has no visible shape, it is absurd to make or worship images, and instead man must worship the invisible God alone.[94][95]

The commandments in the Hebrew Bible against idolatry forbade the practices and gods of ancient Akkad, Mesopotamia, and Egypt.[96][97] The Hebrew Bible states that God has no shape or form, is utterly incomparable, is everywhere and cannot be represented in a physical form of an idol.[98]

Archaeological evidence[edit]

Biblical scholars have historically focussed on the textual evidence to construct the history of idolatry in Judaism, a scholarship that post-modern scholars have increasingly begun deconstructing.[99] This biblical polemics, states Naomi Janowitz – a professor of Religious Studies, has distorted the reality of Israelite religious practices and the historic use of images in Judaism. The direct material evidence is more reliable, such as those from the archaeological sites, and these suggest that the Jewish religious practices have been far more complex than what biblical polemics suggest. Judaism included images and cultic statues in the First Temple period, the Second Temple period, Late Antiquity (2nd to 8th century CE), and thereafter.[99][100]

The history of Jewish religious practice has included idols and figurines made of ivory, terracotta, faience and seals.[99][101] As more material evidence emerged, one proposal has been that Judaism oscillated between idolatry and iconoclasm. However, the dating of the objects and texts suggest that the two theologies and liturgical practices existed simultaneously. The claimed rejection of idolatry because of monotheism found in Jewish literature and therefrom in biblical Christian literature, states Janowitz, has been unreal abstraction and flawed construction of the actual history.[99] The material evidence of images, statues and figurines taken together with the textual description of Cherub and "wine standing for blood", for example, suggests that symbolism, making religious images, icon and index has been integral part of Judaism.[99][102][103] Every religion has some objects that represent the divine, idols that stand for something in the mind of the faithful, and Judaism too has had its holy objects and symbols such as the Menorah.[99]

Indian religions[edit]

The ancient religions of India had no idolatry. While the Vedic literature of Hinduism is extensive in the form of Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads, and have been dated to have been composed over a period of centuries (1500 BCE to 200 BCE), there is no mention of idols or temples or idolatry in them.[104] Beyond the textual evidence, no ancient temples or idols have yet been discovered in archaeological sites of ancient India that suggest idolatry. The early Buddhist and Jain (pre-200 BCE) traditions similarly suggest no evidence of idolatry. The Vedic literature mention many gods and goddesses, as well as the use of Homa (votive ritual using fire), but it does not mention idols or idol worship.[104][105][106] The ancient Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina texts discuss the nature of existence, whether there is or is not a creator deity such as in the Nasadiya Sukta of the Rigveda, they describe meditation, they recommend the pursuit of simple monastic life and self knowledge, they debate the nature of absolute reality as Brahman or Śūnyatā, yet the ancient Indian texts mention no idolatry. Indologists such as the Max Muller, Jan Gonda, Pandurang Vaman Kane, Ramchandra Narayan Dandekar, Horace Hayman Wilson, Stephanie Jamison and other scholars state that "there is no evidence for icons or images representing god(s)" in the ancient religions of India. Idolatry developed among the Indian religions later.[104][107]

According to John Grimes, a professor of Indian philosophy, Indian thought denied even dogmatic idolatry of its scriptures. Everything has been left to challenge, arguments and enquiry, with the medieval Indian scholar Vācaspati Miśra stating that scripture is not authoritative, only purportful scripture is.[108]

Buddhism[edit]

According to Eric Reinders, icons and idolatry has been an integral part of Buddhism throughout its later history.[109] Buddhists, from Korea to Vietnam, Thailand to Tibet, Central Asia to South Asia, have long produced temples and idols, altars and rosaries, relics to amulets, images to ritual implements.[109][110][111] The images or relics of Buddha are found in all Buddhist traditions, but they also feature gods and goddesses such as those in Tibetan Buddhism.[109][112]

Bhatti (Bhakti in Pali) with bowing before Buddhist icons at a Buddhist temple, Tibet.

Bhakti (called Bhatti in Pali) has been a common practice in Theravada Buddhism, where offerings and group prayers are made to Buddhist icons and particularly images of Buddha.[113][114] Karel Werner notes that Bhakti has been a significant practice in Theravada Buddhism, and states, "there can be no doubt that deep devotion or bhakti / bhatti does exist in Buddhism and that it had its beginnings in the earliest days".[115]

According to Peter Harvey – a professor of Buddhist Studies, Buddha idols and idolatry spread into northwest Indian subcontinent (now Pakistan and Afghanistan) and into Central Asia with Buddhist Silk Road merchants.[116] The Hindu rulers of different Indian dynasties patronized both Buddhism and Hinduism from 4th to 9th century, building Buddhist icons and cave temples such as the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves which featured Buddha idols.[117][118][119] From the 10th century, states Harvey, the raids into northwestern parts of South Asia by Muslim Turks destroyed Buddhist idols, given their religious dislike for idolatry. The iconoclasm was so linked to Buddhism, that the Islamic texts of this era in India called all idols as Budd.[116] The desecration of idols in cave temples continued through the 17th century, states Geri Malandra, from the offense of "the graphic, anthropomorphic imagery of Hindu and Buddhist shrines".[119][120]

In East Asia and Southeast Asia, worship in Buddhist temples with the aid of icons and sacred objects has been historic.[121] In Japanese Buddhism, for example, Butsugu (sacred objects) have been integral to the worship of the Buddha (kuyo), and such idolatry considered a part of the process of realizing one's Buddha nature. This process is more than meditation, it has traditionally included devotional rituals (butsudo) aided by the Buddhist clergy.[121] These practices are also found in Korea and China.[111][121]

Hinduism[edit]

Main article: Murti
Ganesh idol during a contemporary festival (left), and mother goddess idol from 6th century India.

In Hinduism, an icon, image, statue or idol is called Murti or Pratima.[7][122] Major Hindu traditions such as Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartaism favor the use of Murti (idolatry). These traditions suggest that it is easier to dedicate time and focus on spirituality through anthropomorphic or non-anthropomorphic icons. The Bhagavad Gita – a Hindu scripture, in verse 12.5, states that only a few have the time and mind to ponder and fix on the unmanifested Absolute (abstract formless Brahman), and it is much easier to focus on qualities, virtues, aspects of a manifested representation of god, through one's senses, emotions and heart, because the way human beings naturally are.[123][124]

A Murti in Hinduism, states Jeaneane Fowler – a professor of Religious Studies specializing on Indian Religions, is itself not god, it is an "image of god" and thus a symbol and representation.[7] A Murti is a form and manifestation, states Fowler, of the formless Absolute.[7] Thus a literal translation of Murti as idol is incorrect, when idol is understood as superstitious end in itself. Just like the photograph of a person is not the real person, a Murti is an image in Hinduism but not the real thing, but in both cases the image reminds of something of emotional and real value to the viewer.[7] When a person worships a Murti, it is assumed to be a manifestation of the essence or spirit of the deity, the worshipper's spiritual ideas and needs are meditated through it, yet the idea of ultimate reality – called Brahman in Hinduism – is not confined in it.[7]

Devotional (bhakti movement) practices centered on cultivating a deep and personal bond of love with God, often expressed and facilitated with one or more Murti, and includes individual or community hymns, japa or singing (bhajan, kirtan or aarti). Acts of devotion, in major temples particularly, are structured on treating the Murti as the manifestation of a revered guest,[125] and the daily routine can include awakening the murti in the morning and making sure that it "is washed, dressed, and garlanded."[126][127][note 1]

Shiva icons of Shaivism (left), and Saraswati the Hindu goddess of arts and knowledge.

In Vaishnavism, the building of a temple for the murti is considered an act of devotion, but non-Murti symbolism is also common wherein the aromatic Tulsi plant or Saligrama is an aniconic reminder of the spiritualism in Vishnu.[126] In the Shaivism tradition of Hinduism, Shiva may be represented as a masculine idol, or half man half woman ardhanarishvara form, in an anicon Linga-Yoni form. The worship rituals associated with the Murti, correspond to ancient cultural practices for a beloved guest, and the Murti is welcomed, taken care of, and then requested to retire.[128][129]

Christopher John Fuller states that an image in Hinduism cannot be equated with a deity and the object of worship is the divine whose power is inside the image, and the image is not the object of worship itself, Hindus believe everything is worthy of worship as it contains divine energy.[130] The idols are neither random nor intended as superstitious objects, rather they are designed with embedded symbolism and iconographic rules which sets the style, proportions, the colors, the nature of items the images carry, their mudra and the legends associated with the deity.[130][131][132] The Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad states that the aim of the Murti art is inspire a devotee towards contemplating the Ultimate Supreme Principle (Brahman).[133] This text adds (abridged):

From the contemplation of images grows delight, from delight faith, from faith steadfast devotion, through such devotion arises that higher understanding (parāvidyā) that is the royal road to moksha. Without the guidance of images, the mind of the devotee may go ashtray and form wrong imaginations. Images dispel false imaginations. (... ) It is in the mind of Rishis (sages), who see and have the power of discerning the essence of all created things of manifested forms. They see their different characters, the divine and the demoniac, the creative and the destructive forces, in their eternal interplay. It is this vision of Rishis, of gigantic drama of cosmic powers in eternal conflict, which the Sthapakas (Silpins, murti and temple artists) drew the subject-matter for their work.

— Pippalada, Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad, Introduction by Alice Boner et al.[134]

Some Hindu movements founded during the colonial British era, such as the Arya Samaj and Satya Mahima Dharma reject idolatry.[135][136][137]

Jainism[edit]

An idol of Parsvanatha in a Jain temple.

Devotional idolatry has been a prevalent ancient practice in various Jaina sects, wherein learned Tirthankara (Jina) and human gurus have been venerated with offerings, songs and Āratī prayers.[138] Like other major Indian religions, Jainism has premised its spiritual practices on the belief that "all knowledge is inevitably mediated by images" and human beings discover, learn and know what is to be known through "names, images and representations". Thus, idolatry has been a part of the major sects of Jainism such as Digambara and Shvetambara.[139] The earliest archaeological evidence of the idols and images in Jainism is from Mathura, and has been dated to be from the first half of the 1st millennium CE.[140]

The creation of idols, their consecration, the inclusion of Jaina layperson in idols and temples of Jainism by the Jaina monks has been a historic practice.[139] However, during the iconoclastic era of Islamic rule, between the 15th and 17th century, a Lonka sect of Jainism emerged that continued pursuing their traditional spirituality but without the Jaina arts, images and idols.[141]

Sikhism[edit]

Main article: Idolatry in Sikhism

Sikhism is a monotheistic Indian religion, and Sikh temples are devoid of idols and icons for God.[142][143] Yet, Sikhism strongly encourages devotion to God.[144][145] Some scholars call Sikhism a Bhakti sect of Indian traditions.[146][147]

In Sikhism, "nirguni Bhakti" is emphasised – devotion to a divine without Gunas (qualities or form),[147][148][149] but its scripture also accepts representations of God with formless (nirguni) and with form (saguni), as stated in Adi Granth 287.[150][151] Sikhism condemns worshipping images or statues as if it were God,[152] but have historically challenged the iconoclastic policies and temple destruction activities of Islamic rulers in India.[153] While Sikh temples do not include statues, its primary scripture Guru Granth Sahib includes the Hindu spiritual concepts and the names of Hindu gods and goddesses.[154]

Sikhs house their scripture and revere the Guru Granth Sahib as the final Guru of Sikhism.[155] It is installed in Sikh Gurdwara (temple), many Sikhs bow or prostrate before it on entering the temple, and just like Rama or Krishna icons are cared for in some large Hindu temples,[note 1] the Guru Granth Sahib is ritually installed every morning, and put to bed at night in many Gurdwaras.[162][163][164]

Traditional religions[edit]

Africa[edit]

An Orisha deity (left) and an artwork depicting a kneeling female worshipper with child, by Yoruba people.

Africa has numerous ethnic groups, and their diverse religious idea have been grouped as African Traditional Religions, sometimes abbreviated to ATR. These religions typically believe in a Supreme Being which goes by different regional names, as well as spirit world often linked to ancestors, and mystical magical powers through divination.[165] Idols and their worship have been associated with all three components in the African Traditional Religions.[166]

According to J.O. Awolalu, proselytizing Christians and Muslims have mislabelled idol to mean false god, when in the reality of most traditions of Africa, the object may be a piece of wood or iron or stone, yet it is "symbolic, an emblem and implies the spiritual idea which is worshipped".[167] The material objects may decay or get destroyed, the emblem may crumble or substituted, but the spiritual idea that it represents to the heart and mind of an African traditionalist remains unchanged.[167] Sylvester Johnson – a professor of African American and Religious Studies, concurs with Awolalu, and states that the colonial era missionaries who arrived in Africa, neither understood the regional languages nor the African theology, and interpreted the images and ritualism as "epitome of idolatry", projecting the iconoclastic controversies in Europe they grew up with, onto Africa.[168]

First with the arrival of Islam in Africa, then during the Christian colonial efforts, the religiously justified wars, the colonial portrayal of idolatry as proof of savagery, the destruction of idols and the seizure of idolaters as slaves marked a long period of religious intolerance, which supported religious violence and demeaning caricature of the African Traditional Religionists.[169][170][171] The violence against idolaters and idolatry of Traditional Religion practicers of Africa started in the medieval era and continued into the modern era.[172][173][174] The charge of idolatry by proselytizers, state Michael Wayne Cole and Rebecca Zorach, served to demonize and dehumanize local African populations, and justify their enslavement and abuse locally or far off plantations, settlements or for forced domestic labor.[175][176]

Americas[edit]

Inti Raymi, a winter solstice festival of the Inca people, reveres Inti – the sun deity. Offerings include round bread and maize beer.[177]

Statues, images and temples have been a part of the Traditional Religions of the indigenous people of the Americas.[178][179][180] The Incan, Mayan and Aztec civilizations developed sophisticated religious practices that incorporated idols and religious arts.[180] The Inca culture, for example, has believed in Viracocha (also called Pachacutec) as the creator deity and nature deities such as Inti (sun deity), and Mama Cocha the goddess of the sea, lakes, rivers and waters.[181][182][183]

The Aztec Tula Atlantean statues (above) have been called as symbols of idolatry, but may have just been stone images of warriors.[184]

In Mayan culture, Kukulkan has been the supreme creator deity, also revered as the god of reincarnation, water, fertility and wind.[185] The Mayan people built step pyramid temples to honor Kukulkan, aligning them to the Sun's position on the spring equinox.[186] Other deities found at Mayan archaeological sites include Xib Chac – the benevolent male rain deity, and Ixchel – the benevolent female earth, weaving and pregnancy goddess.[186] A deity with aspects similar to Kulkulkan in the Aztec culture has been called Quetzalcoatl.[185]

Missionaries came to the Americas with the start of Spanish colonial era, and the Catholic Church did not tolerate any form of native idolatry, preferring that the idols and icons of Jesus and Mary replace the native idols.[81][187][178] Aztec, for example, had a written history which included those about their Traditional Religion, but the Spanish colonialists destroyed this written history in their zeal to end what they considered as idolatry, and to convert the Aztecs to Catholicism. The Aztec Indians, however, preserved their religion and religious practices by burying their idols under the crosses, and then continuing their idol worship rituals and practices, aided by the syncretic composite of atrial crosses and their idols as before.[188]

During and after the imposition of Catholic Christianity during Spanish colonialism, the Incan people retained their original beliefs in deities through syncretism, where they overlay the Christian God and teachings over their original beliefs and practices.[189][190][191] The male deity Inti became accepted as the Christian God, but the Andean rituals centered around idolatry of Incan deities have been retained and continued thereafter into the modern era by the Incan people.[191][192]

Polynesia[edit]

The Polynesian people have had a range of polytheistic theologies found across the Pacific Ocean. The Polynesian people produced idols from wood, and congregated around these idols for worship.[193][194]

The Christian missionaries, particularly from the London Missionary Society such as John Williams, and others such as the Methodist Missionary Society, characterized these as idolatry, in the sense of islanders worshipping false gods. They sent back reports which primarily focussed on "overthrow of pagan idolatry" as evidence of their Christian sects triumph, with fewer mentions of actual converts and baptism.[195][196]

False god or intolerance[edit]

Yehezkel Kaufman (1960) states that the biblical prohibition of idolatry relates to the belief where the idols are considered gods. He adds that it is erroneous to assume that all idolatry was of this type, when in some cases, idols may have only been representations of gods. He cites a passage from 1 Kings 18:27, the Hebrew prophet Elijah challenges the priests of Baal atop of Mount Carmel to persuade their god to perform a miracle. The pagan priests beseeched their god without the use of an idol, which is evidence that Baal was not an idol, but rather one of the polytheistic gods that merely could be worshipped with or without the use of an idol.[citation needed]

The accusations and presumption that all idols and images are devoid of symbolism, or that icons of one's own religion are "true, healthy, uplifting, beautiful symbolism, mark of devotion, divine", while of other person's religion are "false, an illness, superstitious, grotesque madness, evil addiction, satanic and cause of all incivility" is more a matter of subjective personal interpretation, rather than objective impersonal truth.[99] Allegations that idols only represent false gods, followed by violence and iconoclastic destruction, state Regina Schwartz and other scholars, is little more than religious intolerance.[197][198] The philosopher David Hume in his Dialogue on Religion, wrote that pagan idolatry is premised on pluralism, tolerance and acceptance of diverse representations of the divine, while monotheisim has been intolerant, attempted to destroy freedom of expression and has violently forced others to accept and worship their singular view of the divine.[199]

Gallery[edit]

Traditional Christian depictions of Idolatry
The Ten Commandments on a monument on the grounds of the Texas State Capitol
The Ten Commandments on a monument on the grounds of the Texas State Capitol. The first commandment listed is interpreted as prohibiting Idolatry, but the nature of the meaning of Idolatry in the Biblical law in Christianity is disputed. 
Bronze snake (formerly believed to be the one by Moses), nave of Sant'Ambrogio basilica in Milan, Italy
Main nave of Sant'Ambrogio basilica in Milan, Italy. The bronze snake (formerly believed to be the one by Moses), a gift from emperor Basil II (1007). It stands on an Ancient Roman granite pillar. Picture by Giovanni Dall'Orto, April 25, 2007. 
The Adoration of the Golden Calf by artist Nicolas Poussin
A Madonna idol procession in Italy
A Madonna idol procession in Italy 
Idolaty in Christendom

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Such idol caring practices are found in other religions. For example, the Infant Jesus of Prague is venerated in many countries of the Catholic world. In the Prague Church it is housed, it is ritually cared for, cleaned and dressed by the sisters of the Carmelites Church, changing the Infant Jesus' clothing to one of the approximately hundred costumes donated by the faithfuls as gift of devotion.[156][157] The idol is worshipped with the faithful believing that it renders favors to those who pray to it.[157][158][159] Such ritualistic caring of the image of baby Jesus is found in other churches and homes in Central Europe and Portugual / Spain influenced Christian communities with different names, such as Menino Deus.[158][160][161]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zhiru Ng (2007). The Making of a Savior Bodhisattva: Dizang in Medieval China. University of Hawaii Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-8248-3045-8. 
  2. ^ a b Frank K. Flinn (2007). Encyclopedia of Catholicism. Infobase. pp. 358–359. ISBN 978-0-8160-7565-2. 
  3. ^ a b c Thomas W. L. Jones (1898). The Queen of Heaven: Màmma Schiavona (the Black Mother), the Madonna of the Pignasecea: a Delineation of the Great Idolatry. pp. 1–2. 
  4. ^ a b Moshe Halbertal; Avishai Margalit; Naomi Goldblum (1992). Idolatry. Harvard University Press. pp. 1–8, 85–86, 146–148. ISBN 978-0-674-44313-6. 
  5. ^ Moshe Barasch (1993). Icon: Studies in the History of an Idea. New York University Press. pp. 114–117. ISBN 978-0-8147-1214-6. 
  6. ^ Wendy Doniger (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 497. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Jeaneane D Fowler (1996), Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-60-8, pages 41–45
  8. ^ a b Karel Werner (1995), Love Divine: Studies in Bhakti and Devotional Mysticism, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700702350, pages 45-46;
    John Cort (2011), Jains in the World, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-979664-9, pages 80–85
  9. ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2010), A Survey of Hinduism, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, pages 264–267
  10. ^ Lindsay Jones, ed. (2005). Gale Encyclopedia of Religion. 11. Thompson Gale. pp. 7493–7495. ISBN 0-02-865980-5. 
  11. ^ Aniconism, Encyclopedia Britannica
  12. ^ Marina Prusac; Kristine Kolrud (2014). Iconoclasm from Antiquity to Modernity. Ashgate. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-1-4094-7033-5. 
  13. ^ Willem J. van Asselt; Paul Van Geest; Daniela Muller (2007). Iconoclasm and Iconoclash: Struggle for Religious Identity. BRILL Academic. pp. 8–9, 52–60,. ISBN 90-04-16195-3. 
  14. ^ André Wink (1997). Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. BRILL Academic. pp. 317–324. ISBN 90-04-10236-1. 
  15. ^ Barbara Roggema (2009). The Legend of Sergius Bahira: Eastern Christian Apologetics and Apocalyptic in Response to Islam. BRILL Academic. pp. 204–205. ISBN 90-04-16730-7. 
  16. ^ Erich Kolig (2012). Conservative Islam: A Cultural Anthropology. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 71 with footnote 2. ISBN 978-0-7391-7424-1. 
  17. ^ Zollner, Barbara H. E. (31 October 2008). The Muslim Brotherhood: Hasan Al-Hudaybi and Ideology. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-134-07767-0. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  18. ^ Simon Ross Valentine (2014). Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond. Oxford University Press. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-1-84904-464-6. , Quote: "In reference to Wahhabi strictness in applying their moral code, Corancez writes that the distinguishing feature of the Wahhabis was their intolerance, which they pursued to hitherto unknown extremes, holding idolatry as a crime punishable by death".
  19. ^ G. R. Hawting (1999). The Idea of Idolatry and the Emergence of Islam: From Polemic to History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–6, 80–86. ISBN 978-1-139-42635-0. 
  20. ^ "''idolater'' at Wordnik". Wordnik.com. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  21. ^ John Bowker (2005). "Idolatry". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861053-3. 
  22. ^ Douglas Harper (2015), Etymology Dictionary, Idolatry
  23. ^ Noah Webster (1841). An American Dictionary of the English Language. BL Hamlen. p. 857. 
  24. ^ Stern, Sacha. Jewish Identity in Early Rabbinic Writings. p. 9 with footnotes 47-48. Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  25. ^ idolism, Merriam Webster;
    Anthony Ephirim-Donkor (2012). African Religion Defined: A Systematic Study of Ancestor Worship among the Akan. University Press of America. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7618-6058-7. 
  26. ^ iconolatry, Merriam Webster;
    Elmar Waibl (1997). Dictionary of philosophical terms. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 42 see Bilderverehrung. ISBN 978-3-11-097454-6. 
  27. ^ John F. Thornton; Susan B. Varenne (2006). Steward of God's Covenant: Selected Writings. Random House. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4000-9648-0. ;
    See John Calvin (1537) The Institutes of the Christian Religion, Quote: "The worship which they pay to their images they cloak with the name of εἰδωλοδυλεία (idolodulia), and deny to be εἰδωλολατϱεία (idolatria). So they speak, holding that the worship which they call dulia may, without insult to God, be paid to statues and pictures. (...) For the Greek word λατϱεύειν having no other meaning than to worship, what they say is just the same as if they were to confess that they worship their images without worshipping them. They cannot object that I am quibbling upon words. (...) But how eloquent soever they may be, they will never prove by their eloquence that one and the same thing makes two. Let them show how the things differ if they would be thought different from ancient idolaters."
  28. ^ Ucko, Peter J. (1962). "The Interpretation of Prehistoric Anthropomorphic Figurines". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 92 (1): 38. doi:10.2307/2844320. 
  29. ^ Richard G. Lesure (2011). Interpreting Ancient Figurines: Context, Comparison, and Prehistoric Art. Cambridge University Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-1-139-49615-5. 
  30. ^ National Museum, Seated Male in Namaskar pose, New Delhi, Government of India;
    S Kalyanaraman (2007), Indus Script Cipher: Hieroglyphs of Indian Linguistic Area, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-0982897102, pages 234–236
  31. ^ a b Peter Roger Stuart Moorey (2003). Idols of the People: Miniature Images of Clay in the Ancient Near East. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–15. ISBN 978-0-19-726280-1. 
  32. ^ S. Diamant (1974), A Prehistoric Figurine from Mycenae, The Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 69 (1974), pages 103-107
  33. ^ JÜRGEN THIMME (1965), DIE RELIGIÖSE BEDEUTUNG DER KYKLADENIDOLE, Antike Kunst, 8. Jahrg., H. 2. (1965), pages 72-86 (in German)
  34. ^ Colin Beckley; Elspeth Waters (2008). Who Holds the Moral High Ground?. Societas Imprint Academic. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-84540-103-0. 
  35. ^ a b c Barbara Johnson (2010). Moses and Multiculturalism. University of California Press. pp. 50–52. ISBN 978-0-520-26254-6. 
  36. ^ a b Douglas Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Routledge. pp. 44, 125–133, 544–545. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5. 
  37. ^ Boria Sax (2001). The Mythical Zoo: An Encyclopedia of Animals in World Myth, Legend, and Literature. ABC-CLIO. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-1-57607-612-5. 
  38. ^ Douglas Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Routledge. pp. 124, 129–130, 134, 137–138. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5. 
  39. ^ James Bonwick (1894). Irish Druids and Old Irish Religions. Griffith, Farran. pp. 230–231. 
  40. ^ a b Barbara Johnson (2010). Moses and Multiculturalism. University of California Press. pp. 21–22, 50–51. ISBN 978-0-520-26254-6. 
  41. ^ Sylvia Estienne (2015). Rubina Raja and Jörg Rüpke, ed. A Companion to the Archaeology of Religion in the Ancient World. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 379–384. ISBN 978-1-4443-5000-5. 
  42. ^ Arthur P. Urbano (2013). The Philosophical Life. Catholic University of America Press. pp. 212–213 with footnotes 25–26. ISBN 978-0-8132-2162-5. 
  43. ^ a b Paul Kugler (2008). Polly Young-Eisendrath and Terence Dawson, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Jung. Cambridge University Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-1-139-82798-0. 
  44. ^ Christopher Norris (1997). New Idols of the Cave: On the Limits of Anti-realism. Manchester University Press. pp. 106–110. ISBN 978-0-7190-5093-0. 
  45. ^ David Sansone (2016). Ancient Greek Civilization. Wiley. pp. 275–276. ISBN 978-1-119-09814-0. 
  46. ^ Sidney H. Griffith (2012). The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam. Princeton University Press. pp. 143–145. ISBN 1-4008-3402-3. 
  47. ^ King, G. R. D. (1985). "Islam, iconoclasm, and the declaration of doctrine". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Cambridge University Press. 48 (02): 267. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00033346. 
  48. ^ a b T. J. Wray (2011). What the Bible Really Tells Us: The Essential Guide to Biblical Literacy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-1-4422-1293-0. 
  49. ^ Terrance Shaw (2010). The Shaw's Revised King James Holy Bible. Trafford Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4251-1667-5. 
  50. ^ Leora Batnitzky (2009). Idolatry and Representation: The Philosophy of Franz Rosenzweig Reconsidered. Princeton University Press. pp. 147–156. ISBN 1-4008-2358-7. 
  51. ^ Ryan K. Smith (2011). Gothic Arches, Latin Crosses: Anti-Catholicism and American Church Designs in the Nineteenth Century. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 79–81. ISBN 978-0-8078-7728-9. 
  52. ^ a b Moshe Halbertal; Avishai Margalit; Naomi Goldblum (1992). Idolatry. Harvard University Press. pp. 39–40, 102–103, 116–119. ISBN 978-0-674-44313-6. 
  53. ^ L. A. Craighen (1914). The Practice of Idolatry. Taylor & Taylor. pp. 21–26, 30–31. 
  54. ^ William L. Vance (1989). America's Rome: Catholic and contemporary Rome. Yale University Press. pp. 5–8, 12, 17–18. ISBN 978-0-300-04453-9. 
  55. ^ Stephen Gero (1973). Byzantine Iconoclasm During the Reign of Leo III: With Particular Attention to the Oriental Sources. Corpus scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium: Subsidia. pp. 1–7, 44–45. 
  56. ^ Saint John (of Damascus) (1898). St. John Damascene On Holy Images: (pros Tous Diaballontas Tas Agias Eikonas). T. Baker. pp. 5–6, 12–17. 
  57. ^ Hans J. Hillerbrand (2012). A New History of Christianity. Abingdon. pp. 131–133, 367. ISBN 978-1-4267-1914-1. 
  58. ^ Benedict Groschel (2010). I Am with You Always: A Study of the History and Meaning of Personal Devotion to Jesus Christ for Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians. Ignatius. pp. 58–60. ISBN 978-1-58617-257-2. 
  59. ^ Jeffrey F. Hamburger (2002). St. John the Divine: The Deified Evangelist in Medieval Art and Theology. University of California Press. pp. 3, 18–24, 30–31. ISBN 978-0-520-22877-1. 
  60. ^ Ronald P. Byars (2002). The Future of Protestant Worship: Beyond the Worship Wars. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-664-22572-8. 
  61. ^ Kenelm Henry Digby (1841). Mores Catholici : Or Ages of Faith. Catholic Society. pp. 408–410. 
  62. ^ a b Natasha T. Seaman; Hendrik Terbrugghen (2012). The Religious Paintings of Hendrick Ter Brugghen: Reinventing Christian Painting After the Reformation in Utrecht. Ashgate. pp. 23–29. ISBN 978-1-4094-3495-5. 
  63. ^ Horst Woldemar Janson; Anthony F. Janson (2003). History of Art: The Western Tradition. Prentice Hall. p. 386. ISBN 978-0-13-182895-7. 
  64. ^ Henry Ede Eze (2011). Images in Catholicism ...idolatry?: Discourse on the First Commandment With Biblical Citations. St. Paul Press. pp. 11–14. ISBN 978-0-9827966-9-6. 
  65. ^ Kathleen M. Ashley; Robert L. A. Clark (2001). Medieval Conduct. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 211–212. ISBN 978-0-8166-3576-4. 
  66. ^ Bernard Lonergan (2016). The Incarnate Word: The Collected Works of Bernard Lonergan, Volume 8. University of Toronto Press. pp. 310–314. ISBN 978-1-4426-3111-3. 
  67. ^ Rev. Robert William Dibdin (1851). England warned and counselled; 4 lectures on popery and tractarianism. James Nisbet. p. 20. 
  68. ^ Gary Waller (2013). Walsingham and the English Imagination. Ashgate. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-4094-7860-7. 
  69. ^ Sebastian Dabovich (1898). The Holy Orthodox Church: Or, The Ritual, Services and Sacraments of the Eastern Apostolic (Greek-Russian) Church. American Review of Eastern Orthodoxy. pp. 21–22. 
  70. ^ Ulrich Broich; Theo Stemmler; Gerd Stratmann (1984). Functions of Literature. Niemeyer. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-3-484-40106-8. 
  71. ^ a b Ambrosios Giakalis (2005). Images of the Divine: The Theology of Icons at the Seventh Ecumenical Council. Brill Academic. pp. viii–ix, 1–3. ISBN 978-90-04-14328-9. 
  72. ^ Gabriel Balima (2008). Satanic Christianity and the Creation of the Seventh Day. Dorrance. pp. 72–73. ISBN 978-1-4349-9280-2. 
  73. ^ Patricia Crone (1980), Islam, Judeo-Christianity and Byzantine Iconoclasm, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, Volume 2, pages 59-95
  74. ^ James Leslie Houlden (2003). Jesus in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 369–370. ISBN 978-1-57607-856-3. 
  75. ^ Catechism of The Catholic Church, passage 2113, p. 460, Geoffrey Chapman, 1999
  76. ^ "Manufactory of Romish Graven Images". The Wesleyan Juvenile Offering: A Miscellany of Missionary Information for Young Persons. Wesleyan Missionary Society. X: 1. January 1853. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  77. ^ a b c Anthony Milton (2002). Catholic and Reformed: The Roman and Protestant Churches in English Protestant Thought. Cambridge University Press. pp. 186–195. ISBN 978-0-521-89329-9. 
  78. ^ James Noyes (2013). The Politics of Iconoclasm: Religion, Violence and the Culture of Image-Breaking in Christianity and Islam. Tauris. pp. 31–37. ISBN 978-0-85772-288-1. 
  79. ^ Leora Batnitzky (2009). Idolatry and Representation: The Philosophy of Franz Rosenzweig Reconsidered. Princeton University Press. pp. 147–156. ISBN 1-4008-2358-7. 
  80. ^ Ryan K. Smith (2011). Gothic Arches, Latin Crosses: Anti-Catholicism and American Church Designs in the Nineteenth Century. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 79–81. ISBN 978-0-8078-7728-9. 
  81. ^ a b c Carlos M. N. Eire (1989). War Against the Idols: The Reformation of Worship from Erasmus to Calvin. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–7. ISBN 978-0-521-37984-7. 
  82. ^ Richardson, R. C. (1972). Puritanism in north-west England: a regional study of the diocese of Chester to 1642. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7190-0477-3. 
  83. ^ Leora Faye Batnitzky (2000). Idolatry and Representation: The Philosophy of Franz Rosenzweig Reconsidered. Princeton University Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-691-04850-9. 
  84. ^ Steinsaltz, Rabbi Adin. "Introduction - Masechet Avodah Zarah". The Coming Week's Daf Yomi. Retrieved 31 May 2013. , Quote: "Over time, however, new religions developed whose basis is in Jewish belief - such as Christianity and Islam - which are based on belief in the Creator and whose adherents follow commandments that are similar to some Torah laws (see the uncensored Rambam in his Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot Melakhim 11:4). All of the rishonim agree that adherents of these religions are not idol worshippers and should not be treated as the pagans described in the Torah."
  85. ^ a b c Shirk, Encyclopedia Britannica, Quote: "Shirk, (Arabic: “making a partner [of someone]”), in Islam, idolatry, polytheism, and the association of God with other deities. The Quran stresses in many verses that God does not share his powers with any partner (sharik). It warns those who believe their idols will intercede for them that they, together with the idols, will become fuel for hellfire on the Day of Judgment (21:98)."
  86. ^ a b Waldman, Marilyn Robinson (1968). "The Development of the Concept of Kufr in the Qur'ān". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 88 (3): 442–455. doi:10.2307/596869. 
  87. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase. pp. 420–421. ISBN 978-1-4381-2696-8. , Quote: [Kafir] They included those who practiced idolatry, did not accept the absolute oneness of God, denied that Muhammad was a prophet, ignored God's commandments and signs (singular aya) and rejected belief in a resurrection and final judgment."
  88. ^ a b G. R. Hawting (1999). The Idea of Idolatry and the Emergence of Islam: From Polemic to History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–51, 67–70. ISBN 978-1-139-42635-0. 
  89. ^ Reuven Firestone (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0-19-535219-1. 
  90. ^ Hugh Goddard (2000). A History of Christian-Muslim Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-56663-340-6. , Quote: "in some verses it does appear to be suggested that Christians are guilty of both kufr and shirk. This is particularly the case in 5:72 (...) In addition to 9:29, therefore, which has been discussed above and which refers to both Jews and Christians, other verses are extremely hostile to both Jews and Christians, other verses are extremely hostile to Christians in particular, suggesting that they both disbelieve (kafara) and are guilty of shirk."
  91. ^ Oliver Leaman (2006). The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 144–146. ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1. 
  92. ^ "UBA: Rosenthaliana 1768" [English: 1768: The Ten Commandments, copied in Amsterdam Jekuthiel Sofer] (in Dutch). Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  93. ^ a b Barry Kogan (1992). Proceedings of the Academy for Jewish Philosophy. University Press of America. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-0-8191-7925-8. 
  94. ^ a b c David Novak (1996). Leo Strauss and Judaism: Jerusalem and Athens Critically Revisited. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 72–73. ISBN 978-0-8476-8147-1. 
  95. ^ Hava Tirosh-Samuelson; Aaron W. Hughes (2015). Arthur Green: Hasidism for Tomorrow. BRILL Academic. p. 231. ISBN 978-90-04-30842-8. 
  96. ^ Shalom Goldman (2012). Wiles of Women/The Wiles of Men, The: Joseph and Potiphar's Wife in Ancient Near Eastern, Jewish, and Islamic Folklore. State University of New York Press. pp. 64–68. ISBN 978-1-4384-0431-8. 
  97. ^ Abraham Joshua Heschel (2005). Heavenly Torah: As Refracted Through the Generations. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 73–75. ISBN 978-0-8264-0802-0. 
  98. ^ Frank L. Kidner; Maria Bucur; Ralph Mathisen; et al. (2007). Making Europe: People, Politics, and Culture, Volume I: To 1790. Cengage. p. 40. ISBN 0-618-00480-7. 
  99. ^ a b c d e f g Janowitz, Naomi (2007). "Good Jews Don't: Historical and Philosophical Constructions of Idolatry". History of Religions. University of Chicago Press. 47 (2/3): 239–252. doi:10.1086/524212. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  100. ^ Timothy Insoll (2002). Archaeology and World Religion. Routledge. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-1-134-59798-7. 
  101. ^ Allen Shapiro (2011), Judean pillar figurines: a study, MA Thesis, Advisor: Barry Gittlen, Towson University, United States
  102. ^ Rachel Neis (29 August 2013). The Sense of Sight in Rabbinic Culture. Cambridge University Press. pp. 99–100 with footnotes. ISBN 978-1-107-03251-4. 
  103. ^ Kalman Bland (2001). Lawrence Fine, ed. Judaism in Practice: From the Middle Ages Through the Early Modern Period. Princeton University Press. pp. 290–291. ISBN 0-691-05787-7. 
  104. ^ a b c Noel Salmond (2006). Hindu Iconoclasts: Rammohun Roy, Dayananda Sarasvati, and Nineteenth-Century Polemics against Idolatry. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-1-55458-128-3. 
  105. ^ Richard Payne (2015). Michael Witzel, ed. Homa Variations: The Study of Ritual Change Across the Longue Durée. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–5, 143–148. ISBN 978-0-19-935158-9. 
  106. ^ Phyllis Granoff (2000), Other people's rituals: Ritual Eclecticism in early medieval Indian religious, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Volume 28, Issue 4, pages 399-424
  107. ^ Stephanie W. Jamison (2011), The Ravenous Hyenas and the Wounded Sun: Myth and Ritual in Ancient India, Cornell University Press, ISBN 978-0801477324, pages 15-17
  108. ^ John Grimes (1994). Problems and Perspectives in Religious Discourse. State University of New York Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0-7914-1791-1. 
  109. ^ a b c Eric Reinders (2005). Francesco Pellizzi, ed. Anthropology and Aesthetics, Volume 48: Autumn 2005. Harvard University Press. pp. 61–63. ISBN 978-0-87365-766-2. 
  110. ^ Minoru Kiyota (1985), Tathāgatagarbha Thought: A Basis of Buddhist Devotionalism in East Asia, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2/3, pages 207-231
  111. ^ a b Pori Park (2012), Devotionalism Reclaimed: Re-mapping Sacred Geography in Contemporary Korean Buddhism, Journal of Korean Religions, Vol. 3, No. 2, pages 153-171
  112. ^ Allan Andrews (1993), Lay and Monastic Forms of Pure Land Devotionalism: Typology and History, Numen, Vol. 40, No. 1, pages 16-37
  113. ^ Donald Swearer (2003), Buddhism in the Modern World: Adaptations of an Ancient Tradition (Editors: Heine and Prebish), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195146981, pages 9-25
  114. ^ Karen Pechelis (2011), The Bloomsbury Companion to Hindu Studies (Editor: Jessica Frazier), Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-1472511515, pages 109-112
  115. ^ Karel Werner (1995), Love Divine: Studies in Bhakti and Devotional Mysticism, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700702350, pages 45-46
  116. ^ a b Peter Harvey (2013). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-0-521-85942-4. 
  117. ^ Richard Cohen (2006). Beyond Enlightenment: Buddhism, Religion, Modernity. Routledge. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-1-134-19205-2. , Quote: Hans Bakker's political history of the Vakataka dynasty observed that Ajanta caves belong to the Buddhist, not the Hindu tradition. That this should be so is already remarkable in itself. By all we know of Harisena he was a Hindu; (...).
  118. ^ Spink, Walter M. (2006). Ajanta: History and Development Volume 5: Cave by Cave. Leiden: Brill Academic. pp. 179–180. ISBN 90-04-15644-5. 
  119. ^ a b Geri Hockfield Malandra (1993). Unfolding A Mandala: The Buddhist Cave Temples at Ellora. State University of New York Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-7914-1355-5. 
  120. ^ Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger (2012). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-136-63979-1. , Quote: "Some had been desecrated by zealous Muslims during their occupation of Maharashtra in the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries."
  121. ^ a b c Fabio Rambelli; Eric Reinders (2012). Buddhism and Iconoclasm in East Asia: A History. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 17–19, 23–24, 89–93. ISBN 978-1-4411-8168-8. 
  122. ^ "pratima (Hinduism)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  123. ^ Brant Cortright (2010). Integral Psychology: Yoga, Growth, and Opening the Heart. State University of New York Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-0-7914-8013-7. 
  124. ^ http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-12-04.html
  125. ^ Lindsay Jones, ed. (2005). Gale Encyclopedia of Religion. 11. Thompson Gale. pp. 7493–7495. ISBN 0-02-865980-5. 
  126. ^ a b Klaus Klostermaier (2007) Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, 2nd Edition, Oxford: OneWorld Publications, ISBN 978-1-85168-163-1, pages 63–65
  127. ^ Fuller, C. J. (2004), The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 67–68, ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5 
  128. ^ Michael Willis (2009), The Archaeology of Hindu Ritual, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-51874-1, pages 96–112, 123–143, 168–172
  129. ^ Paul Thieme (1984), "Indische Wörter und Sitten," in Kleine Schriften (Wiesbaden), Vol. 2, pages 343–370
  130. ^ a b Christopher John Fuller (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton University Press. pp. 58–61. ISBN 0-691-12048-X. 
  131. ^ PK Acharya, A summary of the Mānsāra, a treatise on architecture and cognate subjects, PhD Thesis awarded by Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden, published by BRILL, OCLC 898773783, pages 49–56, 63–65
  132. ^ Alice Boner, Sadāśiva Rath Śarmā and Bettina Bäumer (2000), Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0090-8, pages 7–9, for context see 1–10
  133. ^ Alice Boner, Sadāśiva Rath Śarmā and Bettina Bäumer (2000), Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0090-8, pages 7–9, for context see 1–10
  134. ^ Alice Boner, Sadāśiva Rath Śarmā and Bettina Bäumer (2000), Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0090-8, page 9
  135. ^ Naidoo, Thillayvel (1982). The Arya Samaj Movement in South Africa. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 158. ISBN 81-208-0769-3. 
  136. ^ Lata, Prem (1990). Swami Dayānanda Sarasvatī. Sumit Publications. p. x. ISBN 81-7000-114-5. 
  137. ^ Bhagirathi Nepak. Mahima Dharma, Bhima Bhoi and Biswanathbaba
  138. ^ John Cort, Jains in the World : Religious Values and Ideology in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN , pages 64-68, 86-90, 100-112
  139. ^ a b John Cort (2010). Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History. Oxford University Press. pp. 3, 8–12, 45–46, 219–228, 234–236. ISBN 978-0-19-045257-5. 
  140. ^ Paul Dundas (2002). The Jains, 2nd Edition. Routledge. pp. 39–40, 48–53. ISBN 978-0-415-26606-2. 
  141. ^ Suresh K. Sharma; Usha Sharma (2004). Cultural and Religious Heritage of India: Jainism. Mittal. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-81-7099-957-7. 
  142. ^ W. Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1993). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study (Themes in Comparative Religion). Wallingford, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 117–118. ISBN 0333541073. 
  143. ^ Mark Juergensmeyer, Gurinder Singh Mann (2006). The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. US: Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-19-513798-9. 
  144. ^ S Deol (1998), Japji: The Path of Devotional Meditation, ISBN 978-0-9661027-0-3, page 11
  145. ^ HS Singha (2009), The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Hemkunt Press, ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1, page 110
  146. ^ W. Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1997), A Popular Dictionary of Sikhism: Sikh Religion and Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700710485, page 22
  147. ^ a b David Lorenzen (1995), Bhakti Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791420256, pages 1-3
  148. ^ Hardip Syan (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 178
  149. ^ A Mandair (2011), Time and religion-making in modern Sikhism, in Time, History and the Religious Imaginary in South Asia (Editor: Anne Murphy), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415595971, page 188-190
  150. ^ Mahinder Gulati (2008), Comparative Religious And Philosophies : Anthropomorphism And Divinity, Atlantic, ISBN 978-8126909025, page 305
  151. ^ W.O. Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (2016). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. Springer. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-1-349-23049-5. 
  152. ^ W.O. Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (2016). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. Springer. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-1-349-23049-5. 
  153. ^ John F. Richards (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2. 
  154. ^ Hakim Singh Rahi (1999). Sri Guru Granth Sahib Discovered: A Reference Book of Quotations from the Adi Granth. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 166–175. ISBN 978-81-208-1613-8. 
  155. ^ Jane Bingham (2007), Sikhism, Atlas of World Faiths, ISBN 978-1599200590, pages 19-20
  156. ^ Courtney T. Goto (2016). The Grace of Playing: Pedagogies for Leaning into God's New Creation. Wipf and Stock. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-1-4982-3300-2. 
  157. ^ a b J. Gordon Melton (2001). Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology: A-L. Gale. p. Idolatry. ISBN 978-0-8103-9488-9. , Alternate Link
  158. ^ a b Régis Bertrand (2003). La Nativité et le temps de Noël: XVIIe-XXe siècle (in French). Publ. de l'Université de Provence. pp. 87–95. ISBN 978-2-85399-552-8. 
  159. ^ Margarita Simon Guillory (2011), Creating Selves: An Interdisciplinary Exploration of Self and Creativity in African American Religion, PhD Thesis, Awarded by Rice University, Advisor: Anthony Pinn, pages 122-128
  160. ^ Reinhardt, Steven G. (2008). "Review: La Nativité et le temps de Noël, XVIIe-XXe siècle". The Catholic Historical Review. Johns Hopkins University Press. 94 (1): 147–149. doi:10.1353/cat.2008.0002. 
  161. ^ Francois Soyer (2012). Ambiguous Gender in Early Modern Spain and Portugal: Inquisitors, Doctors and the Transgression of Gender Norms. BRILL Academic. pp. 212–213. ISBN 978-90-04-23278-5. ;
    Avessadas and the Infant Jesus of Prague Portugal
  162. ^ William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, page 44
  163. ^ Torkel Brekke (2014), Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions (Editors: Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521450386, page 675
  164. ^ Gerald Parsons (1993). The Growth of Religious Diversity: Traditions. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-415-08326-3. 
  165. ^ Richard Gehman (2005). African Traditional Religion in Biblical Perspective. East African Publishers. pp. xi–xii. ISBN 978-9966-25-354-5. 
  166. ^ Richard Gehman (2005). African Traditional Religion in Biblical Perspective. East African Publishers. pp. 189–190,. ISBN 978-9966-25-354-5. 
  167. ^ a b J. O. Awolalu (1976), What is African Traditional Religion?, Studies in Comparative Religion, Vol. 10, No. 2, pages 8, 1-10
  168. ^ Sylvester A. Johnson (2015). African American Religions, 1500–2000: Colonialism, Democracy, and Freedom. Cambridge University Press. pp. 49–51. ISBN 978-1-316-36814-5. 
  169. ^ Rubiés, Joan Pau (2006). "Theology, Ethnography, and the Historicization of Idolatry". Journal of the History of Ideas. Johns Hopkins University Press. 67 (4): 571–596. doi:10.1353/jhi.2006.0038. 
  170. ^ Ranger, Terence O. (1986). "Religious Movements and Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa". African Studies Review. Cambridge University Press. 29 (2): 1–70. doi:10.2307/523964. 
  171. ^ René A. Bravmann (1980). Islam and Tribal Art in West Africa. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–21, 36–37. ISBN 978-0-521-29791-2. 
  172. ^ Willis, John Ralph (1967). "Jihād fī Sabīl Allāh—its Doctrinal Basis in Islam and some Aspects of its Evolution in Nineteenth-Century West Africa". The Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press. 8 (03): 395. doi:10.1017/s0021853700007933. 
  173. ^ Reuven Firestone (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 20–21, 85–89. ISBN 978-0-19-535219-1. 
  174. ^ Marc Gopin (2002). Holy War, Holy Peace. Oxford University Press. pp. 243 footnote 5. ISBN 978-0-19-803348-6. 
  175. ^ Michael Wayne Cole; Rebecca Zorach (2009). The Idol in the Age of Art: Objects, Devotions and the Early Modern World. Ashgate. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7546-5290-8. , Quote: "By negating African religious practices, the pejorative characterizations of these works as objects of idolatry served in vital ways to both demonize and dehumanize local populations, thereby providing a moral buttress for European religious and human trade practices on the continent".
  176. ^ Patrick Taylor; Frederick I. Case (2013). The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions. University of Illinois Press. pp. 1002–1003. ISBN 978-0-252-09433-0. 
  177. ^ Janet Parker; Julie Stanton (2007). Mythology: Myths, Legends and Fantasies. Struik Publishers. p. 501. ISBN 978-1-77007-453-8. 
  178. ^ a b B. Morrill; J. Ziegler; S. Rodgers (2006). Practicing Catholic: Ritual, Body, and Contestation in Catholic Faith. Springer. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-1-4039-8296-4. 
  179. ^ Rebecca M. Seaman (2013). Conflict in the Early Americas: An Encyclopedia of the Spanish Empire's Aztec, Incan, and Mayan Conquests. ABC-CLIO. pp. 140–141, 251. ISBN 978-1-59884-777-2. 
  180. ^ a b Michael Wayne Cole; Rebecca Zorach (2009). The Idol in the Age of Art: Objects, Devotions and the Early Modern World. Ashgate. pp. 77–81. ISBN 978-0-7546-5290-8. 
  181. ^ Alan L. Kolata (2013). Ancient Inca. Cambridge University Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-521-86900-3. 
  182. ^ C Scott Littleton (2005). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 726–729. ISBN 978-0-7614-7565-1. 
  183. ^ Greg Roza (2008). Incan Mythology and Other Myths of the Andes. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 27–30. ISBN 978-1-4042-0739-4. 
  184. ^ Benjamin Keen (1990). The Aztec Image in Western Thought. Rutgers University Press. pp. 239–240. ISBN 978-0-8135-1572-4. 
  185. ^ a b C Scott Littleton (2005). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 797–798. ISBN 978-0-7614-7565-1. 
  186. ^ a b C Scott Littleton (2005). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 843–844. ISBN 978-0-7614-7565-1. 
  187. ^ Patrick Taylor; Frederick I. Case (30 April 2013). The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions. University of Illinois Press. pp. 560–562. ISBN 978-0-252-09433-0. 
  188. ^ Manuel Aguilar-Moreno (2007). Handbook to Life in the Aztec World. Oxford University Press. pp. 24, 203–204. ISBN 978-0-19-533083-0. 
  189. ^ J. Gordon Melton; Martin Baumann (2010). Religions of the World. ABC-CLIO. pp. 2243–2244. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3. 
  190. ^ Klaus Koschorke; Frieder Ludwig; Mariano Delgado (2007). A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 1450-1990. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 323–325. ISBN 978-0-8028-2889-7. 
  191. ^ a b Lawrence A. Kuznar (2001). Ethnoarchaeology of Andean South America: Contributions to Archaeological Method and Theory. Indiana University Press. pp. 45–47. ISBN 978-1-879621-29-9. 
  192. ^ Brian M. Fagan (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9. 
  193. ^ Robert W. Williamson (2013). Religion and Social Organization in Central Polynesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-107-62569-3. 
  194. ^ Robert W. Williamson (2013). Religion and Social Organization in Central Polynesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 6–14, 37–38, 113, 323. ISBN 978-1-107-62569-3. 
  195. ^ Steven Hooper (2006). Pacific Encounters: Art & Divinity in Polynesia, 1760-1860. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 27, 65–71. ISBN 978-0-8248-3084-7. 
  196. ^ J Mezies (1841). Abolition of Idolatry in Polynesia. XXIV (The Journal of civilization ed.). Society for the Advancement of Civilization. pp. 370–373. 
  197. ^ Regina Schwartz (2016). Loving Justice, Living Shakespeare. Oxford University Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-0-19-251460-8. 
  198. ^ Josh Ellenbogen; Aaron Tugendhaft (2011). Idol Anxiety. Stanford University Press. pp. 29–35, 60–74. ISBN 978-0-8047-8181-7. 
  199. ^ Moshe Halbertal; Donniel Hartman (2007). Monotheism and Violence. Judaism and the Challenges of Modern Life. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 105–112. ISBN 978-0-8264-9668-3. 

External links[edit]