Maria Cristina Fragas
Maria Cristina Fragas (July 24, 1856 – April 20, 1936) was a Cuban writer of African origin. She wrote under the name Cristina Ayala.
The daughter of a Creole mother who was a slave and an unknown father, she was born free in Güines. Her work was published in various newspapers and journals including El Pueblo Libre and El Sufragista, as well as in Minerva, a magazine dedicated to black women for which she was a founding editor. She is believed to be the first Afro-Hispanic writer to talk about race in her poetry. In her work, she opposed slavery and racial inequality and supported national independence for all Cubans.
In 1912, she married Cecilio Larrondo.
Fragas died in Güines at the age of 79.
- "Cristina Ayala". Círculo Güinero de Los Ángeles.
- Callahan, Monique-Adelle (2011). Between the Lines: Literary Transnationalism and African American Poetics. pp. 25–32. ISBN 019987669X.
- Sanmartin, Paula (2014). Black Women as Custodians of History: Unsung Rebel (M)Others in African American and Afro-Cuban Women's Writing. p. 240. ISBN 1604978694.
- DeCosta-Willis, Miriam (2003). Daughters of the Diaspora: Afra-Hispanic Writers. pp. xxx–xxxi. ISBN 976637077X.