Cystogastrostomy

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Cystogastrostomy
SpecialtyGastroenterology

Cystogastrostomy is a surgery to create an opening between a pancreatic pseudocyst and the stomach when the cyst is in a suitable position to be drained into the stomach.[1] This conserves pancreatic juices that would otherwise be lost.[2] This surgery is performed by a pancreatic surgeon to avoid a life-threatening rupture of the pancreatic pseudocyst.[3]

Indications[edit]

Symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts are an indication a cystogastrostomy needs to be performed. Pancreatic pseudocysts are chronic collections of pancreatic fluid encased by a wall of nonepithelialized granulation tissue and fibrosis. They can be caused by leakage of the pancreatic duct, or as a result of inflammatory pancreatitis.[4] Symptoms of this include abdominal bloating, difficulty eating and digesting food, and constant pain or deep ache in the abdomen. A lump can be felt in the middle or left upper abdomen if a pseudocyst is present. To further diagnose a pancreatic pseudocyst an abdominal CT scan, MRI or ultrasound can be used.[5] Emergency surgery may need to be performed if there is a rupture of the pseudocyst. This can be detected from symptoms of bleeding, shock, fainting, fever and chills, rapid heartbeat, or severe abdominal pain.[6]

Technique[edit]

Surgical cystogastrostomy[edit]

Surgical repair is carried out through an incision in the abdomen. After locating the pseudocyst, it is attached to the wall of the stomach and the cystogastrostomy is created. Although it has a high success rate, it is infrequently used because of the recovery period.[4]

Endoscopic cystogastrostomy[edit]

A relatively new and less-invasive method involving endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance and fluoroscopy. A large bore needle is used to access the identified pseudocyst, creating a fistula between the cystic cavity and either the stomach or the duodenum.[7] Plastic stents may be placed to facilitate drainage from the pseudocyst.[4] The success rate of endoscopic treatment of pseudocysts may be greater than 70%.[8]

Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy[edit]

This method is the second of two less invasive surgeries used to drain pseudocysts and can be performed by a single surgeon because of the advanced tools. The pseudocyst is identified and accessed using laparoscopic techniques. Once the pseudocyst cavity is located, it is entered and aspirated, and an opening is created into the stomach for drainage. Laparoscopic drainage may result in better cosmetic appearance and decreased pain following surgery.[9]

Complications[edit]

Cystogastrostomy can lead to pancreatic abscess[10] and pancreatic duct leak. Stents can become blocked, leading to infection of the pseudocyst.[7] Other complications include those normally associated with surgery and anesthesia, including bleeding.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Jedlicka first described the procedure.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cystogastrostomy". Right Diagnosis. Health Grades Inc. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  2. ^ Ehrlich EW, Gonzales-Lavin L (December 1966). "Pseudocysts treated by cystogastrostomy. Assessment by catheter contrast visualization". Archives of Surgery. 93 (6): 996–1001. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1966.01330060140020. PMID 5954338.
  3. ^ Habashi S, Draganov PV (January 2009). "Pancreatic pseudocyst". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (1): 38–47. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.38. PMC 2653285. PMID 19115466. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Varadarajulu S, Bang JY, Sutton BS, Trevino JM, Christein JD, Wilcox CM (September 2013). "Equal efficacy of endoscopic and surgical cystogastrostomy for pancreatic pseudocyst drainage in a randomized trial". Gastroenterology. 145 (3): 583–90.e1. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2013.05.046. PMID 23732774.
  5. ^ "Pancreatic pseudocyst". Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  6. ^ Carey E (August 2012). "Pancreatic pseudocyst". Healthline. Healthline Networks. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  7. ^ a b Giovannini M (January 2005). "Endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic pseudocyst drainage". Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America. 15 (1): 179–88, xi. doi:10.1016/j.giec.2004.07.007. PMID 15555960.
  8. ^ "Acute pancreatitis: therapy". Johns Hopkins. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  9. ^ Lutfi R, Jyot B, Rossi M, Jefferson E, Salti G (November 2010). "Hand-sewn cystogastrostomy using the novel single-incision laparoscopy with flexible-tip laparoscope". Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A. 20 (9): 761–766. doi:10.1089/lap.2009.0421. PMID 20874414.
  10. ^ Elechi EN, Callender CO, Calhoun T, Kurtz LH (November 1980). "Pancreatic abscess: a major complication of cystogastrostomy". Journal of the National Medical Association. 72 (11): 1067–1074. PMC 2552595. PMID 7441786.
  11. ^ Karavias T, Dollinger P, Häring R (1993). "Cystogastrostomy in the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts". In Beger HG, Büchler M, Malfertheiner P (eds.). Standards in Pancreatic Surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 540–543. ISBN 978-3-642-77437-9.