|Member of Parliament for Greenwich|
Serving with J. W. Deans Dundas and H. Stewart
|Preceded by||Edward George Barnard |
James Whitley Deans Dundas
|Succeeded by||Peter Rolt|
|Lord Mayor of the City of London|
|Preceded by||Francis Moon|
|Succeeded by||Thomas Finnis|
|Member of Parliament for Greenwich|
Serving with W. Codrington, W. Angerstein, C. T. Bright, and W. E. Gladstone
|Preceded by||Sir William Codrington|
|Succeeded by||William Ewart Gladstone|
|Born||22 November 1797|
London, Great Britain
|Died||18 July 1873(aged 75)|
|Resting place||West Ham Jewish Cemetery|
|Political party||Radicals (1851–1859)|
Sir David Salomons, 1st Baronet (22 November 1797 – 18 July 1873), was a leading figure in the 19th century struggle for Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom. He was the first Jewish Sheriff of the City of London and Lord Mayor of London.
Born in London, the son of Levy Salomons of St Mary Axe and Frant, Sussex, and Matilda de Metz of Leyden (married in 1795), he followed his father into business in the City of London, where he was a successful banker. Salomons was one of the founders of the London and Westminster Bank (now the NatWest), and a member of the London Stock Exchange.
In 1835 he was elected as sheriff of the City of London. However, he was unable to take up the post, because the mandatory oath of office included Christian statements of faith. The Sheriffs' Declaration Act was passed later that year, and Salomons was able to take up the post. In 1839, he was High Sheriff of Kent, where his Broomhill estate  Archived 30 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine, now the Salomons Museum, was located near Tunbridge Wells.
In December 1835, Salomons was elected as an Alderman of the City of London, but again faced an unacceptable oath, and on this occasion the law was not changed. Salomons was disqualified, but was re-elected in 1847, after the Religious Opinions Relief Act had amended the oath. In 1855, the Aldermen elected him as Lord Mayor of London.
In the meantime, he trained as a lawyer and was called to the bar in 1849, though he did not practise as a barrister. However, he was the first Jewish magistrate in England. In 1847 he served on the committee of the British Relief Association.
In 1851, he stood as a Liberal candidate at a by-election in the Greenwich constituency, and on 28 June he was elected as one of the constituency's two Members of Parliament (MPs). He had previously been defeated in the 1847 general election.
He was not permitted to serve in the House of Commons, because he had not taken the oath of abjuration in the form established by Parliament. However, he did not withdraw quietly: instead he took the oath, but omitted the Christian phrases, and took his seat on the government benches.
He was asked to withdraw, and did so on the second request, but he returned three days later, on 21 July 1851. In the debate that followed, Salomons defended his presence on grounds of having been elected by a large majority, but was eventually removed by the Sergeant-at-Arms, and fined £500 for having voted illegally in three divisions of the House. He failed to win re-election in the 1852 general election.
When the law was eventually changed in 1858, Lionel de Rothschild became the first Jewish MP to legally take his seat, having been elected in 1857. In the 1859 general election, David Salomons was re-elected for Greenwich and served as the constituency's MP until his death in 1873.
His country house Broomhill north of Tunbridge Wells is now preserved as the Salomons Museum.
Salomons married in 1825 Jeanette, daughter of Solomon Cohen of Canonbury House and Hannah Samuel. Her aunts Judith and Henriette were the wives of Sir Moses Montefiore and Nathan Mayer Rothschild respectively. After her death in 1867 Salomons married Cecilia, the daughter of Samuel Moses Samuel in 1872. He was made a baronet of Broom Hill in the parish of Tonbridge in the County of Kent and of Great Cumberland Place in the County of Middlesex on 26 October 1869.
He died on 18 July 1873, and is buried in the Jewish Cemetery at West Ham. He had no children by either of his marriages, so his estate and titles passed to his nephew David Lionel Salomons, whom he had brought up after the death of Sir David's brother Philip Salomons.
- Hyamson, Albert Montefiore (1939) David Salomons Methuen, London;
- Burke's Peerage
- Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages [self-published source][better source needed]
- ^ "History of the Mayoralty". City of London.
- ^ "No. 23544". The London Gazette. 8 October 1869. p. 5446.
- 1797 births
- 1873 deaths
- Businesspeople from London
- 19th-century lord mayors of London
- 19th-century English politicians
- English Jews
- English bankers
- English barristers
- Jewish mayors
- Liberal Party (UK) MPs for English constituencies
- Baronets in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom
- UK MPs 1847–1852
- UK MPs 1857–1859
- UK MPs 1859–1865
- UK MPs 1865–1868
- UK MPs 1868–1874
- High Sheriffs of Kent
- Sheriffs of the City of London
- Jewish British politicians
- People from Frant
- 19th-century English businesspeople