From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Developer(s)Wolfgang Bangerth, Timo Heister, Guido Kanschat, Matthias Maier et al.
Initial release2000; 24 years ago (2000)
Stable release
9.5.0 / 7 July 2023; 7 months ago (2023-07-07)
Written inC++
Operating systemLinux, macOS, Microsoft Windows
TypeFinite element analysis
LicenseGNU Lesser General Public License 2.1 or later

deal.II is a free, open-source library to solve partial differential equations using the finite element method.[1][2]  The current release is version 9.5, released in July 2023.[3] It is one of the most widely used finite element libraries[citation needed] and provides comprehensive support for all aspects of the solution of partial differential equations. The founding authors of the project — Wolfgang Bangerth, Ralf Hartmann, and Guido Kanschat — won the 2007 J. H. Wilkinson Prize for Numerical Software for deal.II.[4] However, it is a worldwide project with around a dozen "Principal Developers", but over the years several hundred people have contributed substantial pieces of code or documentation to the project.


The library features

History and Impact[edit]

The software started from work at the Numerical Methods Group at Heidelberg University in Germany in 1998. The first public release was version 3.0.0 in 2000. Since then deal.II has gotten contributions from several hundred authors[8] and has been used in more than 2,000 research publications.[9]

The primary maintainers, coordinating the worldwide development of the library, are today located at Colorado State University, Clemson University, Heidelberg University, Texas A&M University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a number of other institutions.[10] It is developed as a worldwide community of contributors through GitHub[11] that incorporates several hundred changes by dozens of authors every month.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bangerth, W; Hartmann, R; Kanschat, G. (2007). "deal.II - a general-purpose object-oriented finite element library" (PDF). ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 33 (4): 24. doi:10.1145/1268776.1268779. S2CID 207163483.
  2. ^ "deal.II Homepage". Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  3. ^ "Version 9.5.0 released". dealii. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  4. ^ "Developers of Finite Element Library Receive Wilkinson Prize for Numerical Software". Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  5. ^ Bangerth, W.; Burstedde, C.; Heister, T.; Kronbichler, M. (2011). "Algorithms and Data Structures for Massively Parallel Generic Finite Element Codes". ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 38. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/2049673.2049678. S2CID 1158172.
  6. ^ Janssen, B.; Kanschat, G. (2011). "Adaptive multilevel methods with local smoothing for H1- and Hcurl-conforming high order finite element methods". SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33 (4). doi:10.1137/090778523.
  7. ^ Kanschat, G. (2004). "Multi-level methods for discontinuous Galerkin FEM on locally refined meshes". Computers & Structures. 82 (28): 2437–2445. doi:10.1016/j.compstruc.2004.04.015.
  8. ^ "deal.II Authors". Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  9. ^ "List of Publications". Retrieved 8 November 2022.
  10. ^ "deal.II author list". Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  11. ^ "deal.II github page". GitHub. Retrieved 14 June 2019.

External links[edit]