Dedekind eta function
In mathematics, the Dedekind eta function, named after Richard Dedekind, is a modular form of weight 1/2 and is a function defined on the upper half-plane of complex numbers, where the imaginary part is positive.
For any complex number τ with Im(τ) > 0, let q = exp(2π i τ), and define the eta function by,
The eta function is holomorphic on the upper half-plane but cannot be continued analytically beyond it.
More generally, suppose a, b, c, d are integers with ad − bc = 1, so that
is a transformation belonging to the modular group. We may assume that either c > 0, or c = 0 and d = 1. Then
Here is the Dedekind sum
Because of these functional equations the eta function is a modular form of weight 1/2 and level 1 for a certain character of order 24 of the metaplectic double cover of the modular group, and can be used to define other modular forms. In particular the modular discriminant of Weierstrass can be defined as
and is a modular form of weight 12. (Some authors omit the factor of (2π)12, so that the series expansion has integral coefficients).
where is the Dirichlet character modulo 12 with , . Explicitly,
The Euler function
related to by , has a power series by the Euler identity:
Because the eta function is easy to compute numerically from either power series, it is often helpful in computation to express other functions in terms of it when possible, and products and quotients of eta functions, called eta quotients, can be used to express a great variety of modular forms.
The picture on this page shows the modulus of the Euler function: the additional factor of between this and eta makes almost no visual difference whatsoever (it only introduces a tiny pinprick at the origin). Thus, this picture can be taken as a picture of eta as a function of q.
The theory of the algebraic characters of the affine Lie algebras gives rise to a large class of previously unknown identities for the eta function. These identities follow from the Weyl-Kac character formula, and more specifically from the so-called "denominator identities". The characters themselves allow the construction of generalizations of the Jacobi theta function which transform under the modular group; this is what leads to the identities. An example of one such new identity is
The above connection with the Euler function together with the special values of the latter, it can be easily deduced that
and so on, values which appear in Ramanujan–Sato series.
- Chowla–Selberg formula
- Ramanujan–Sato series
- Weierstrass's elliptic functions
- Partition function (number theory)
- Kronecker limit formula
- Affine Lie algebra
- Siegel, C.L. (1954). "A Simple Proof of ". Mathematika 1: 4. doi:10.1112/S0025579300000462.
- Fuchs, Jurgen (1992), Affine Lie Algebras and Quantum Groups, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-48412-X
- Tom M. Apostol, Modular functions and Dirichlet Series in Number Theory (2 ed), Graduate Texts in Mathematics 41 (1990), Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-97127-0 See chapter 3.
- Neal Koblitz, Introduction to Elliptic Curves and Modular Forms (2 ed), Graduate Texts in Mathematics 97 (1993), Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-97966-2