Deo Vindice

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Great Seal of the Confederate States, displaying the motto "Deo Vindice".

Deo Vindice (English: Under God, our Vindicator), was the motto of the Confederate States of America (CSA), and was engraved on their official seal.[1]

Background and timeline[edit]

The CSA firmly believed that God was on their side during the American Civil War, and made repeated proclamations to that effect.[2] The Confederate Senator Thomas Semmes, in proposing this motto, took pains to stress that the CSA had "deviated in the most emphatic manner from the spirit that presided over the construction of the Constitution of the United States, which is silent on the subject of the Deity",[3][4] and he clearly expected this invocation to bring his side victory.

The motto was not finalized and adopted until April 30, 1863.[5] [6] Prior to that "Deo Duce Vincemus" (meaning "Under the leadership of God we will conquer") had been the motto under consideration. The committee debated the matter and with Semmes' leadership recommended Deo Vindice. [7]

The seal itself was engraved in London in 1864 and did not reach the Confederacy until shortly before the fall of Richmond. [8][9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Confederate States of America : 22 February 1862 - deo vindice". Library of Congress. 1911. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  2. ^ "Constitution of the Confederate States; March 11, 1861". 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  3. ^ "The Great Seal of the Confederacy". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  4. ^ Southern Historical Society Papers. Vol. XVI. Richmond, Va. January–December 1888. pp. 416–422. 
  5. ^ [1] Journal of the Third Session of First Confederate Congress, "Joint resolution to establish a Seal for the Confederate States"
  6. ^ [2] Sigillologia. Being some Account of the Great or Broad Seal of the Confederate States of America. A Monograph. Washington DC, published by Kervand & Towers 1873
  7. ^ http://www.civilwarhome.com/confederateseal.html from Southern Historical Society Papers. Vol. XVI. Richmond, Va., January-December. 1888 -- Note that the 1864 date given for debate is apparently in error compared to other primary sources confirming 1863.
  8. ^ http://www.civilwarhome.com/confederateseal.html from Southern Historical Society Papers. Vol. XVI. Richmond, Va., January-December. 1888
  9. ^ [3] Sigillologia. Being some Account of the Great or Broad Seal of the Confederate States of America. A Monograph. Washington DC, published by Kervand & Towers 1873