After law studies in Pisa, Anzilotti taught international law in Florence, Palermo, Bologna and Rome from 1892 to 1937. One of the main proponents of Heinrich Triepel's theory of dualism, his textbook of international law, Corso di diritto internazionale. Vol. I: Introduzione e teorie generali (3d. ed. 1928) was translated into several languages.
Anzilotti was the secretary-general of the League of Nations expert commission preparing the Permanent Court of International Justice. He was a member of that court from 1921 to 1946 and presided it 1928–30. Notably, in the 1923 "Wimbledon case", he was the only PCIJ judge to ever vote against a suit brought by the government of his own country.
Lingens, Karl-Heinz (2001). "Dionisio Anzilotti". In Michael Stolleis (ed.). Juristen: ein biographisches Lexikon; von der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert (in German) (2nd ed.). München: Beck. p. 38. ISBN3-406-45957-9.