Dora L. Costa (born 1964) is an American economist. After teaching at MIT from 1993 to 2007, Costa is now a Professor of Economics at UCLA. Costa is noted for her studies of social class and health inequality and for her work on social capital.
In 1986, Costa earned her B.A. at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1993, she earned her Ph.D. at the University of Chicago. She is a married to her collaborator Matthew E. Kahn, a professor of economics at UCLA.