Jump to content

Rebound effect

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Double rebound)

The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage. In the case of re-emergence, the severity of the symptoms is often worse than pretreatment levels.



The rebound effect, or pharmaceutical rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage. In the case of re-emergence, the severity of the symptoms is often worse than pretreatment levels.[citation needed]



Sedative hypnotics


Rebound insomnia is insomnia that occurs following discontinuation of sedative substances taken to relieve primary insomnia. Regular use of these substances can cause a person to become dependent on its effects in order to fall asleep. Therefore, when a person has stopped taking the medication and is 'rebounding' from its effects, they may experience insomnia as a symptom of withdrawal. Occasionally, this insomnia may be worse than the insomnia the drug was intended to treat.[1] Common medicines known to cause this problem are eszopiclone, zolpidem, and anxiolytics such as benzodiazepines and which are prescribed to people having difficulties falling or staying asleep.

Rebound depression may appear to arise in patients previously free of such an illness.[2]

Daytime rebound effects of anxiety, metallic taste, perceptual disturbances which are typical benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms can occur the next day after a short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotic wears off. Rebound phenomena do not necessarily only occur on discontinuation of a prescribed dosage. Another example is early morning rebound insomnia which may occur when a rapidly eliminated hypnotic wears off which leads to rebounding awakeness forcing the person to become wide awake before he or she has had a full night's sleep. One drug which seems to be commonly associated with these problems is triazolam, due to its high potency and ultra short half life, but these effects can occur with other short-acting hypnotic drugs.[3][4][5] Quazepam, due to its selectivity for type1 benzodiazepine receptors and long half-life, does not cause daytime anxiety rebound effects during treatment, showing that half-life is very important for determining whether a nighttime hypnotic will cause next-day rebound withdrawal effects or not.[6] Daytime rebound effects are not necessarily mild but can sometimes produce quite marked psychiatric and psychological disturbances.[7]



Rebound effects from stimulants such as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine include stimulant psychosis, depression and a return of ADHD symptoms but in a temporarily exaggerated form.[8][9][10] Up to a third of ADHD children experience a rebound effect when methylphenidate is withdrawn.[11]



Many antidepressants, including SSRIs, can cause rebound depression, panic attacks, anxiety, and insomnia when discontinued.[12]



Sudden and severe emergence[13] or re-emergence[14] of psychosis may appear when antipsychotics are switched or discontinued too rapidly.

Alpha-2 adrenergic agents


Rebound hypertension, above pre-treatment level, was observed after clonidine,[15] and guanfacine[16] discontinuation.

Continuous usage of topical decongestants (nasal sprays) can lead to constant nasal congestion, known as rhinitis medicamentosa.

Other medications


Another example of pharmaceutical rebound is a rebound headache from painkillers when the dose is lowered, the medication wears off, or the drug is abruptly discontinued.[17]

In 2022, reports of viral RNA and symptom rebound in people with COVID-19 treated with Paxlovid were published. In May, CDC even issued a health alert informing physicians about "Paxlovid rebounds", which received attention when US president Joe Biden experienced a rebound. The cause of the rebound is unclear however, since around a third of people with COVID-19 experience a symptom rebound regardless of treatment.[18]

Abrupt withdrawal of highly potent corticosteroids, such as clobetasol for psoriasis can cause a much more severe case of the psoriasis to develop. Therefore, withdrawal should be gradual, until very little actual medication is being applied.[citation needed]

See also



  1. ^ Reber, Arthur S.; Reber, Emily S. (2001). Dictionary of Psychology. Penguin Reference. ISBN 0-14-051451-1.
  2. ^ Lader, Malcolm (January 1994). "Anxiety or depression during withdrawal of hypnotic treatments". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 38 (Supplement 1): 113–123. doi:10.1016/0022-3999(94)90142-2. PMID 7799243.
  3. ^ Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Kales JD (April 1983). "Early morning insomnia with rapidly eliminated benzodiazepines". Science. 220 (4592): 95–7. Bibcode:1983Sci...220...95K. doi:10.1126/science.6131538. PMID 6131538.
  4. ^ Lee A, Lader M (January 1988). "Tolerance and rebound during and after short-term administration of quazepam, triazolam and placebo to healthy human volunteers". Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 3 (1): 31–47. doi:10.1097/00004850-198801000-00002. PMID 2895786.
  5. ^ Kales A (1990). "Quazepam: hypnotic efficacy and side effects". Pharmacotherapy. 10 (1): 1–10, discussion 10–2. doi:10.1002/j.1875-9114.1990.tb02545.x. PMID 1969151. S2CID 33505418.
  6. ^ Hilbert JM, Battista D (September 1991). "Quazepam and flurazepam: differential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics". J Clin Psychiatry. 52 Suppl: 21–6. PMID 1680120.
  7. ^ Adam K; Oswald I (May 1989). "Can a rapidly-eliminated hypnotic cause daytime anxiety?". Pharmacopsychiatry. 22 (3): 115–9. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1014592. PMID 2748714. S2CID 32045254.
  8. ^ Garland EJ (1998). "Pharmacotherapy of adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: challenges, choices and caveats". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford). 12 (4): 385–95. doi:10.1177/026988119801200410. PMID 10065914. S2CID 38304694.
  9. ^ Rosenfeld AA (February 1979). "Depression and psychotic regression following prolonged methylphenidate use and withdrawal: case report". Am J Psychiatry. 136 (2): 226–8. doi:10.1176/ajp.136.2.226. PMID 760559.
  10. ^ Smucker WD, Hedayat M (September 2001). "Evaluation and treatment of ADHD". Am Fam Physician. 64 (5): 817–29. PMID 11563573. Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
  11. ^ Riccio CA, Waldrop JJ, Reynolds CR, Lowe P (2001). "Effects of stimulants on the continuous performance test (CPT): implications for CPT use and interpretation". J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 13 (3): 326–35. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.13.3.326. PMID 11514638. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14.
  12. ^ Bhanji NH, Chouinard G, Kolivakis T, Margolese HC (2006). "Persistent tardive rebound panic disorder, rebound anxiety and insomnia following paroxetine withdrawal: a review of rebound-withdrawal phenomena" (PDF). Can J Clin Pharmacol. 13 (1): e69–74. PMID 16456219. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-04-12.
  13. ^ Fernandez, Hubert H.; Martha E. Trieschmann; Michael S. Okun (3 Aug 2004). "Rebound psychosis: Effect of discontinuation of antipsychotics in Parkinson's disease". Movement Disorders. 20 (1): 104–105. doi:10.1002/mds.20260. PMID 15390047. S2CID 11574536.
  14. ^ Moncrieff, Joanna (23 March 2006). "Does antipsychotic withdrawal provoke psychosis? Review of the literature on rapid onset psychosis (supersensitivity psychosis) and withdrawal-related relapse". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 114 (1). John Wiley & Sons A/S: 3–13. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00787.x. ISSN 1600-0447. PMID 16774655. S2CID 6267180. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  15. ^ Metz, Stewart; Catherine Klein; Nancy Morton (January 1987). "Rebound hypertension after discontinuation of transdermal clonidine therapy". The American Journal of Medicine. 82 (1): 17–19. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(87)90371-8. PMID 3026180. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  16. ^ Vitiello B (April 2008). "Understanding the risk of using medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with respect to physical growth and cardiovascular function". Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 17 (2): 459–74, xi. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2007.11.010. PMC 2408826. PMID 18295156.
  17. ^ Maizels M (December 2004). "The patient with daily headaches". Am Fam Physician. 70 (12): 2299–306. PMID 15617293.
  18. ^ Reynolds Lewis (2022-08-02). "Covid rebound can happen even in people who haven't taken Paxlovid". Retrieved 2022-08-04.